Wednesday, June 5, 2019
Theories Of Management And Leadership On Strategy
Theories Of Management And lead On StrategyDifferent Management and Leadership theories are adopted by the organisations to achieve their goals. Leaders make a veritable type of skills, which enables them to survey any theory in a lay downn situation. The decision making process need to be tensile enough to adapt any kind of environs since outcome from it will be have a great impact on organisation, that impact basis be on strategy, goals or its culture.Theories of Leadership and ManagementDifferent Leadership and Management theories areThe Trait TheoryThis theory is derived from the great man theory, which identifies the see characteristics of a good and successful go alonger. They have personality, dominance, charisma, self-confidence, achievements and ability to formulate a clear visionIt is believed that through this approach critical leadinghip traits could be set-apart and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into lead posi tions.The table below lists the main leadership traits and skills identified by Stogdill in 1974.TraitsSkills -Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity direct) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume function Clever (smart and intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organised (administrative ability) convincing Socially skilledImpact on Organisational StrategyA leader with these traits and skills is able to drive the organisation. It is of this reason that Armed Forces around the world look for these traits in the candidates for the commission.For-example At PCW, where high dedication from Manager is required, if they dont have a charismatic figure or lack self confidence than how they will motivate their squad or employees. Before a leader leads other, it needs to le ad itself, this is called self-leadership. It begins with introspection and development of atomic number 53s emotional intelligence. They need to search their inner self before they lead others.Leader is responsible for e genuinelything the group does or fails to do. Since they are in direct contact with employees so they need to have following traits and act as a role-model.At organisational level, leaders are required to influence the whole organisation by managing the cultural norms, rewards and recognition programs, and discourse.When they get at a high level where they have to lead a city, state or a multi-national corporation, they require power of persuasion and charisma, if they are going to get elected.Their self-confidence enables them to challenge change, and their communication skills helps them to gain trust of others, since they have persuasion power.The point where Traits Theory fails is when following questions are askedDo these traits produce successful leaders? Is leadership more than unspoilt bringing change?Leaders are born or can they be made?The trait theory unfortunately does not prescribe the more or less effective traits that successful leaders should have. Nonetheless, the theory makes good sense when interpreting successful leaders with their remarkable traits. The more or less important problem in applying it is how leaders can know better about themselves and their leadership qualities.Transformational TheoryJames MacGregor wrote in his Burns Leadership was the first to put forward the concept ofTransforming leadership. To MacGregor transforming leadership is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts, followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents. He also identified that Transforming leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one other to higher levels of motivation and ethical motiveThis theory is based on charismatic leaders, who have additional characteristics such as vision and development, and abilities to motivate it followers.Impact on Organisational StrategyHowell and Avolio (1999) assert that transformational leadership with its five key pillars vision, inspiration, stimulation, coaching, and team building. And a leader with such characteristics will bring tremendous payoffs in business performance and innovation.There are certain transformational leadership factors identified by Nahavandi, which areintellectual stimulation to generate new thinkings and empowermentcharisma and inspiration to overcome resistance to change,individual incentives and setting to motivate and encourage the followers.Since our current business environment is very dynamic, so does the need for change in leadership style. For-example Back in days at PCW, managers with certain charismatic qualities were effective in Generation X, and were able to drive their followers. However this cannot be feasible for Genera tion Y, which is current situation. People values most on personal skills and development and prefer to work outside of the organisational boundary. Hence a Transformation theory is required.In the same way, management theory practices in China cannot be practiced in US, since there are cultural differences, and this has a direct impact on organisational strategy.Transformational Leadership is also not very perfect, it has its own flaws. This theory fails when a leader thinks that they have achieved everything the false connection when its team members / followers do not respond appropriately and become lackey the fear of betrayal from followers.Create a Leadership Strategy that supports organisational directionAs per Leadership Theories, a good leader has certain characteristics and skills. Leadership is not only a function of a position on an organisational chart, but also individual performance. Anyone ar any level of the organisation can be a leader. They are recognized for the ir leadership in setting the pace and high standards in their work.STRATEGIC SKILLS AND ABILITIESLeaders at all levels require skills and abilities in three broad areasTechnical knowledge and skills required in the position, especially about executive information systems.Interpersonal/communication knowledge and skills.Conceptual skills which capture the strategic leader to make decisions and cope with the level of complexity associated with a particular position.Leadership Strategy for PC WorldSelf-LeadershipBefore Leaders bear down to lead others, they need to commit to themselves. Leaders need to ensure that they have qualities and characteristics of a good leader. They need to create a personal vision. They need to explore themselves first. What they can achieve with their talent, tools and time. They need to create a big picture of their vision and align it with that of organisation. Once that is down, the next step is to bring their followers on board, and align their motiva tion with PCWs strategy.To create a charismatic figure or to act as a role-model, leaders need to show concern for their employees. In old Model practiced that PCW, Leaders were in control of everything and they were driving the teams. They were doing what they wanted to do. Since the environment is changing so leaders need to transform themselves. They should give what the teams need not what they want. Leaders need to be available to the employees all the time, this is done by implementing open-door policy in the organisation. Leaders need to be popular and should have a two way communication with the followers, unlike the old one-sided communication. This way they can get good feedback and complete tasks.Team LeadershipThis is very important in order to empower team member and their networking activities. It is helpful at PCW since there are people with various ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Everyone has different skills and fields of specialization. It is important for leader s to ensure that team members are selected on the basis of their field of specialization, unique talents, skills and share a same vision. Every team member need to play its own part and should not depend on others. Like in gross revenue team, every member has its own sales target, which they have to achieve on their own. But this does not mean that members cannot take help from each other in case of stock control. Empowerment is promoted in the project teams, which enables them to make certain decisions, like sales assistant is empowered to make a sale or refuse it, or if they like to apply the 2% discount on certain items.When leaders are acting as a role-model they motivate the team and show them the good picture of the future.MentoringMentoring is another good strategy, for project based teams. It acts in two ways, one way is that people learn from their good leaders. The formula is to observe their leaders and learn from them. This is the idea of transformational leadership the ory the followers become leaders for others. On the other side it helps team-members to develop their personal skills. A sales assistant can follow the steps of their team leader and become a leader or a role model for other team-members, this way it can acts as a motivating factors. Leaders acting as a mentor need to provide assurance and personal reflective space, coaches set goals, identify solutions to problems, and provide feedback on the subordinates performance.