Friday, December 27, 2019
Unit 13 Personal Professional Development Self-Managed learning In the Context of Lifelong Learning Assignment Number 1 By Paula Andia (March, 2013) Student NÃ º 2013211 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The Self-Managed Learning Evaluation 2.1. Self-Directed Learning 2.2. Self-Regulated Learning 2.3. Self-Planned Learning 2.4. Learning Project 3. Ways to promoted of S-ML in Personal Professional Lifelong Term 4. Benefits of S-ML Inside Organization 5. Conclusion 1. Introduction In this assignment we can find the many different terms used to explain the Self-Managed Learning process, with the advantages and disadvantages of it. How this process can influence in a lifelong term, the personal and professional of an individual andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Based on TaylorÃ¢â¬Å¸s point of view, the S-D Learners are motivated and persistent, independent, self-disciplined, self-confident. 2.2 Self-Regulated Learning It is a reference to Ã¢â¬Å"thoughts, feelings and actions that are planned and adapted to the attainment of personal goalsÃ¢â¬ (Zimmerman, 2000). The components of S-RL involves, as all the other terms, setting goals for learning, focus on training, using strong strategies to organize ideas, looking for researches effectively, managing performance and time, holding positive beliefs about oneÃ¢â¬Å¸s capabilities (Schunk Ertmer, 2000). There are tasks that makes Learners more autonomous, being capable of create an environment of S-RL, some of them are authentic strategies, autonomy-based assignments, and portfolios. Self-Regulated Learners donÃ¢â¬Å¸t only need to understand the strategies but realize the importance of using them to achieve success. Self-Regulation processes focus on how learners can manage their feelings and motivations to learn. It can be improve with practice. However, stresses related with low income such as psychological distress on adults and low quality of childcare background can harm the development of the individual, like occupational rank inside the organizations. Self-control is one of the most important key/skill to success inside any organization, also in the personalShow MoreRelated1.1 Identify the Purposes of Different Types of Organizations844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Resource Management Institute (HRMI) Edexcel BTEC HND in Business Ã¢â¬â HRM Unit No/Title: Unit 1/Business Environment Unit Code: Y/601/0546 Assignment No: 1/2 Assignment Title: Organization Purpose ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Environment Grading Opportunities Available Date Set: 7th October , 2012 Due Date: 4th November 2012 Student ID: ______________________ Student Signature: ___________________ Outcomes/Grade Descriptors Achieved (Please Tick) Read MoreSelf Learning Managment2266 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBusiness Administration Assignment 5 Ã¢â¬â Self-managed learning Assessor: Marc Gallagher ALESSANDRA FERREIRA DELORENTTE Ã¢â¬â STUDENT NUMBER: 2012696 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO SELF-MANAGED LEARNINGÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.............................. 3 2. PURPOSE OF THE ASSIGNMENT......................................................................... 3 3. APPROACHES TO SELF-MANAGED LEARNINGÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..3 4. HOW TO PROMOTE AND ENCOURAGE LIFELONG LEARNING..................Read MoreEssay on Homework Performance: A Review of the Literature1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis recognized as an important component in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s education experience. I have recently observed a problem with some of the students in my 3rd grade class not completing and turning in homework assignments. The research topic stems from this classroom observation and raises several questions: 1. Does homework performance have a direct correlation to student academic performance? 2. What strategies can result in improvement in student homework performance? 3. Will these strategies haveRead MoreAcademic Skills 2400 Word Assement2193 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.3 Self-managed LearningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..3 Academic WritingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3 Deductive ReasoningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦4 Inductive ReasoningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Critical ThinkingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. CommunicationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Time managementÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. BibliographyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Introduction In this report I will be focusing on The benefits of self-managedRead MoreUnit 6 Business Decision Making Essay5294 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesPage 1 of 22 Centre Name/logo Programme Title Unit No Title QCF Level: Assignment No/Title Tutor/Assessor Written by Essex International College BTEC HND in Business Unit 6 Business Decision Making 5 Credit: 15 Y/601/0578 Acorn Research Consultants Please Provide Tutor Name Here /Assessor Panel Dr Keith Hoodless To meet LO 1 Assessment method To meet LO 2 To meet LO 3 Written Report not exceeding 4000 words covering all tasks To meet LO 4 Key dates: Assignment distribution date to learnersRead MoreSelf Care1408 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswe continue to take more difficult classes in pursuit of becoming nurses, it is easy to forget about self-care. In an effort to prevent burn out, our group has integrated the practices of exercise and meditation into our daily schedules. In the following, we discuss how both mediation and exercise worked and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work for us, what we learned while on this journey, and how we applied our learning to teach someone the skills and knowledge we obtained in meditation and exercise. Countless researchRead MoreBusiness Management1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesASSIGNMENT TASK 1 to TASK 4: You are required to follow the instructions as specified towards each task and support with a research by using supportive materials like books, websites, etc., and give a feedback on the findings by relating your arguments to the relevant case studies as specified towards each task. L1 Understand current issues in the travel and tourism sector TASK 1 You need to choose a destination which is familiar to you and analyse the level of tourism development. YourRead MoreAssignment 1 PPD( Personal professional development5741 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesASSIGNMENT FRONT SHEET No. 1 Qualification BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business Unit number and title Assignment 1 Assignment due Assignment submitted LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s name Nguyen Hai Phong Assessor name Hoang Thi Lan Anh Learner declaration: I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are fully acknowledged. Learner signature Date Grading grid P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 M1 M2 M3 D1 D2 D3 Assignment title HOW KNOWLEDGEABLE YOU ARE In this assignment, youRead Moreassignment 402 PASS1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Assignment 402 Delivering Education and Training Ã¢â¬Å"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the worldÃ¢â¬ Mandela, N (n.d.) As a teacher when delivering any lessons planned we have to make sure that each students individual needs are met, so they will feel included in the lesson. Ã¢â¬Å"Inclusion is about creating interesting, varied and inspiring learning opportunities for all learners, ensuring all learners contribute and are never disadvantaged by methods, language or resourcesÃ¢â¬ Read MoreRole of Technology and the Information Age in Contemporary Leadership Communication884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesleadership. How age affects communication A review of literature indicates that normal communication changes in older adults (Busacco,1999).This fact coupled with the fact that younger adults and children (Verhoef de Boer, 2012) have a faster learning rates means that the way a leader communicates is dependent upon his or her age/generation. The age difference within the organization may cause a great deal of misunderstanding. This is the case because teenagers have their own forms of expressions
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Book Report of The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It In the computer and technology book Ã¢â¬Å"The Future of the Internet and How to Stop ItÃ¢â¬ , the author Jonathan L. Zittrain (2008, April 20) wants to alarm us that the internet world which we think is totally open and ruled by the users all over the world is actually controlled by some particular big companies and institutions. The openness and creativity of the Internet is a double-edged sword. Under the cover of a bloomed and wonderful development, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment of the Internet is in danger. He suggests that more efficient methods and stricter requirements should be carried out to standardize the industry of the Internet. Mr. Zittrain writes the book in the way that associating todayÃ¢â¬â¢s problems of the Internet with the history of the computer field. Firstly, the author shows the development of personal computer and the Internet in a unique way. He analyses the reasons of the success of the Microsoft company and the iPhone. Then he explains many of our current technical barriers and bottlenecks using the theory of generative and sterile. By using the examples like Wikipedia, Zittrain cleverly introduces us the obstacles that may be encountered in the development of the Internet in the future and many ethical issues such as network security and privacy. Focusing on these issues, the author voices his concerns and gives some feasible suggestions. The author Jonathan L. Zittrain is a respectful professor at HarvardShow MoreRelatedThe Pew Internet Report By Kathryn Zickhur1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Pew Internet report I used was conducted by Kathryn Zickhur named Ã¢â¬Å"Reading, writing and research in the digital ageÃ¢â¬ . I decided to use this report because I found it extremely shocking and intriguing. The report displayed the Internet usage amount for all ages and how itÃ¢â¬â¢s increased through the years. This study displays how society has become more technologically advanced. The report then goes into detail about the percentage of adults and teens that use social networks and mobiles in todayÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEvaluation Of The Enquiry Methods, Tools And Processes Used By Carrying Out The Tasks For The Managing People1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDecember 2014 Introduction The purpose of this report is to evaluate all the enquiry methods, tools and processes used in carrying out the tasks for the Managing People in Organisations module. It will try to discuss the problems encountered during the research and enquiry process. It will also make attempt to give recommendations for future development of skills which have been identified in the report. By using analysis and reflection this report will try to outline all the major issues which haveRead MoreImpact Of Deforestation On The Amazon Rainforest Of Brazil, South America, Impact The Environment?1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconcern about the problem and for the future of the Earth. There were different research processes used to discover new information about the problems in the Amazon rainforest such as, an interview with a person who currently lives in Brazil, annotating books, journals, internet research and surveys. These helped me find reliable, credible information and helped me decide when informa tion found was not true. The research was presented as a scientific report. This allowed the findings to be presentedRead MoreThe Internet versus The Library Essay1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe internet and the library , both are the considered to be a big depository of information .Library can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A collection of literary documents or records kept for reference or borrowingÃ¢â¬ While Internet is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"An electronic network providing access to millions of resources worldwide. University Libraries provide access to many periodical indexes through the Internet. Internet access is available on all floors of the Libraries.Ã¢â¬ Internet and the library both seems to beRead MoreEssay On Digital Solution For Enhanced Consumption1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDigital solution for enhanced consumption, learning, retrieval and spaced revision of learning material present online Course Name: Design Project III Course Number: DD 498 Course coordinator: Sharmistha Banerjee Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Design Submitted by Abhilash Singh (140205001) Priyank Agarwal (140205030) Supervised by Prof. Charu Monga Department of Design Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Guwahati Ã¢â¬â 781039Read MorePower Of The Internet And Our Dependence On It1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1A 8 March 2015 Power of the Internet and Our Dependence on it. Google it. E-mail it to me. It s on the Wiki page. All phrases our generations youth find synonymous with looking up or sending information. The ability to retrieve quick facts and brief tutorials have displaced the need to research a subject or practice a skill. Any need to spend a night reading an instruction manual has been replaced by a short 5 minute tutorial on youtube. Buying or Renting books for research has been replacedRead MoreInformation Gathering for Business Analysis1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagescompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual reports, newspaper, internet etc to make my analysis more comprehensive I used the following secondary sources to gather my information which enabled me to get the broad view of Lucky CementÃ¢â¬â¢s Business and it helped me to make a better analysis of Lucky CementÃ¢â¬â¢s Performance. Annual Reports and Books Lucky CementÃ¢â¬â¢s annual reports for years 2008-2010 provided me with a bulk of information which I easily got them from Karachi Stock Exchange a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual reports are undoubtedlyRead More Potential Impact of Blogs on Communication Essay1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Potential Impact of Blogs on Communication The advent of weblogs as instruments of Web-based conversation shall surely increase the exchange of news-related and academic information; probably not to the extent that books or newspapers have, but certainly in an open and accessible way. Gradually as they gain in popularity, blogs shall transform the field of journalism from one of complacent reporting to a more competitive and less elitist industry. Motivated individuals, with the useRead MoreTerm Paper: Strategic Planning at the Chronicle Gazette1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe billions of dollars. Or consider the fate of many dot-coms. One of the most spectacular dot-com stories Ã¢â¬â the rise and fall of AOL Ã¢â¬â illustrates how technology (telephone-based online computing) created a huge success story, and how technology (Internet email) led to a reversal of this success. A major goal of strategic planning is to anticipate environmental changes (economic, business, political, governmental, social) and prepare the o rganization for dealing with them. Clearly, in this age ofRead MoreEssay On Retail Sales855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Retail Sales report is the way to measure spending behavior of the customers based on durability and non-durability of the goods (Retail Sales, 2017). By measuring the demand for the finishes product purchased by the customers, retail sales report helps to feel the pulse of the economy (either expansion or contraction). Healthy sale figures show the financial stability of the customers whereas negative one points towards recession. This report is released by the government agencies like US Census
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theHierarchy and Power are Intrinsic to the Current Health Care System. Answer: The current Australian health care system was established in 1984. The system enables the citizens are not charged to get treatment in all the public hospitals in the country and at the same time the citizens get subsidies to access other health care services (Hall, 2015). The health care system usually gets funding from the government whereby the general public pays for it through taxation. The system has borne fruits of the country since its life expectancy is positioned third globally. However, the country still has some health problems similar to other developed countries and the problems include management of the chronic diseases, obesity, majority of the population has aged, and mental illness (Apparri and Johnson, 2010). Funding the health care system has not been a simple responsibility to the Australian government because the country has a federal system of governance. The health care has been devolved to be under the different state government while on the other hand, the r ole of collecting revenue belongs to the national government (Commonwealthfund.org, 2017). As a result, the state government depends on the national government funding to run an effective health care system (Keleher, 2001). This makes the essence of this paper as it focuses on the importance of hierarchy and power in the Australian health care system. Hierarchy is important in the Australian health care system is important because it helps in giving responsibilities for each level of the government to the proper management of the system. Even though the health care system in Australia has been devolved, the leadership of the country ensured that all the levels of governance had a role to play (Smith et al, 2012). As a result, the commonwealth government, also known as the national government was given the role of ensuring that it made provision for the funds required to run an effective system. The national government, specifically makes provision for dental care, elderly health care, and basic health care (Kolehmainen-Aitken, 2004). Additionally, the national government caters for all the health care needs of people living in Torress Straight island and Aboriginal people. Furthermore, the national government has been given another hierarchical responsibility of ensuring that the health care providers have been financed. This includes offering them favorable working conditions through the provision of all their needs (Mossiolos et al, 2002). In other words, the commonwealth government must ensure that the health care providers have all the equipments that they require in order to deliver their services, which include of the drugs, syringes, gloves, and all other basic equipments (Almalki, FitzGerald, and Clark, 2011). Additionally, the national government has the responsibility of ensuring that the patients are comfortable when they access the hospitals to access the services. Hence, there should be provision of enough beds in the wards for the in-patients, enough number of health care providers, basic needs should be met such as availability of water in the hospital (Joumard, Andr, and Nicq, 2010). Also, the government should ensure that hospitals hav e all the machines that are required to diagnose different illness and also machines that are required in treating some of the diseases (Legido-Quigley, 2008). All the provisions are important in ensuring that the government has an effective health care system. Another hierarchical importance of the Australian government in delivering an effective health care system for all the patients, the federal government has been assigned the role of meeting the cost of all the outpatient Australians (Hu et al, 2008). Additionally, the federal government has also been assigned the role of meeting 40 percent of the cost of the patients that have been admitted in the public hospitals. The remaining 60 percent of the cost is usually covered by the national government (Hurley et al, 2002). Another role that has been assigned to the federal government is ensuring that the health care system is running smoothly in all the health institutions and all the patients get the health that they need. The federal government also has the role of identifying different areas that require some improvement in the health care system and propose the changes to the national government (Joumard, and Kongsrud, 2003). In case the proposals being made by the federal government are meant to improve the lives of the Australian citizens, then the national government has the role of debating whether there are some changes that should be implemented. The power of the national government in the health care system is manifested when there is some adjustment that requires to be made especially with the funding of the health care system. The aspect is important since it helps the health care system to be consolidated in one place (Palmer and Short, 2002). As a result, the entire country is empowered to get access of uniform health care services and under similar conditions such that there is no region that will be disadvantaged. Additionally, the commonwealth government ensures that the health care system has been channeled to all the areas of the country. Changes in the health care system in Australia cut randomly across all the states through directives from the national government (Porter and Teisberg, 2006). Additionally, the national government ensures that the health care system has been uniformly coordinated across all the country. As a result, when the government intends to upgrade the health care institutions, it does it thr oughout the country and all the hospitals are given equal treatment such that there is no group of people will be disadvantaged (Doctauer and Oxley, 2003). Functionalism is one of the sociological theories that is manifested by the health care system in Australia. The health system must be effective to ensure that the society experiences good health and as a result, the society will be more productive (Cockerham, 2014). For the theory to be manifested, the health care providers are given the responsibility of ensuring that the patients get the instructions, which they should adhere to. As a result, the practitioners therefore have to ensure that they deliver with efficiency when treating their patients. Another theory that manifests itself in the Australian health care system is the conflict theory. Usually the social class of people defines the quality of health care that a patient is likely to get (Tommey, 2009). However, the government of Australia has tried to solve this conflict and come up with a system that is all inclusive. As a result, the health practitioners must ensure that the patients get equal treatment regardless of thei r social class. The two theories require that health practitioners should be competent in the delivery of health services such that their knowledge and authority will be manifested. In conclusion, it should be noted that the health care system in Australia has its major challenges. For instance, it is difficult to identify the roles that each level of government has been assigned a specific task (Ducket and Willcockx, 2015). As a result, the Australians are denied a chance to come up with petitions that demands improvements in the delivery of a specific service, which they feel need to be improved.Yet,these improvements could affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the delivery of services to the Austalians In addition, it should be noted that the health care institutions in Australia lacks the presence of leaders due to the influence of the political forces (Leape et al, 2009).Leaders are helpful since they are the eyes on the ground and will therefore have an experience and thus have reforms that are sensitive to the people. As a result, it is likely that the similar programs can be implemented severally since there is no management in place and this is a w aste of the revenue (Gunter and Terry, 2005). However, the health care system in Australia is working for the good of the people who are able to access free or affordable medical services. The system has played a huge role in ensuring that the people have access to one of their basic need regardless of a persons financial status. Additionally, the system has played an important role of ensuring that the entire country enjoys access to uniform health care services. As a result, the patients do not have to travel long distances to access a service since similar services are offered.These is an important and thoughtful since all classes/status doesnt matter. The system has also ensured that the country has avoided the problems in the health care system that comes along with financial provision for the health care providers. References Almalki, M., FitzGerald, G., Clark, M. (2011). Health care system in Saudi Arabia:an overview/Aperu du systme de sant en Arabie saoudite. Eastern Mediterranean health journal, 17(10), 784. Appari, A., Johnson, M. E. (2010). Information security and privacy in healthcare:current state of research. International journal of Internet and enterprise management, 6(4), 279-314. Cockerham, W. C. (2014). Medical sociology. John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Commonwealthfund.org. (2017). Health Care System and Health Policy inAustralia. [online] Available at:https://www.commonwealthfund.org/grants-and-fellowships/fellowships/ australian-american-health-policy-fellowship/health-care-system-and-health-policy-in-australia [Accessed 9 Oct. 2017]. Docteur, E., Oxley, H. (2003). Health-care systems: lessons from the reform experience. Duckett, S., Willcox, S. (2015). The Australian health care system (No. Ed. 5).Oxford University Press. Gunter, T. D., Terry, N. P. (2005). The emergence of national electronic health record architectures in the United States and Australia: models, costs, andquestions. Journal of medical Internet research, 7(1). Hall, J. (2015). Australian health careThe challenge of reform in a fragmented system. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(6), 493-497. Hu, S., Tang, S., Liu, Y., Zhao, Y., Escobar, M. L., De Ferranti, D. (2008). Reform of how health care is paid for in China: challenges and opportunities. The Lancet, 372(9652), 1846-1853. Hurley, J., Vaithianathan, R., Crossley, T. F., Cobb-Clark, D. A. (2002). Parallel private health insurance in Australia: A cautionary tale and lessons for Canada. Joumard, I., Andr, C., Nicq, C. (2010). Health care systems: efficiency and institutions. Joumard, I., Kongsrud, P. M. (2003). Fiscal relations across government levels. OECD Economic Studies, 2003(1), 155-229. Keleher, H. (2001). Why primary health care offers a more comprehensive approach totackling health inequities than primary care. Australian journal of primaryhealth, 7(2), 57-61. Kolehmainen-Aitken, R. L. (2004). Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders. Human Resources for Health, 2(1), 5. Leape, L., Berwick, D., Clancy, C., Conway, J., Gluck, P., Guest, J., ... Pinakiewicz,(2009). Transforming healthcare: a safety imperative. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 18(6), 424-428. Legido-Quigley, H. (2008). Assuring the quality of health care in the European Union:a case for action (No. 12). World Health Organization. Mossialos, E., Dixon, A., Figueras, J., Kutzin, J. (Eds.). (2002). Funding health care:options for Europe. Palmer, G. R., Short, S. D. (2000). Health care and public policy: an Australian analysis. Macmillan Education AU. Porter, M. E., Teisberg, E. O. (2006). Redefining health care: creating value-based competition on results. Harvard Business Press. Runciman, W. B., Hunt, T. D., Hannaford, N. A., Hibbert, P. D., Westbrook, J. I., Coiera,W., ... Braithwaite, J. (2012). CareTrack: assessing the appropriateness of health care delivery in Australia. The Medical Journal of Australia, 197(2), 100-105. Smith, P. C., Anell, A., Busse, R., Crivelli, L., Healy, J., Lindahl, A. K., ... Kene, T. (2012). Leadership and governance in seven developed health systems.Health policy, 106(1), 37-49. Tomey, A. M. (2009). Nursing management and leadership. Elsevier, Missouri.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Juvenile offenders by Expert Tutor Maya | 22 Dec 2016 The idea of charging and trying juveniles as adults within the justice system directly involves the transfer and presentation of their cases from the juvenile to the criminal courts.Yet the very existence of the juvenile judicial system is based upon the developmental idea that minors psychological constitution differ significantly from that of an adult (Steinberg, 1). During the years of transition from childhood to adulthood, psychological development takes place and these developments affect the ability of the person to make informed decisions about actions that might be considered offensive (6). Need essay sample on "Juvenile offenders" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed The recent trend in prosecution has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile cases that are tried in criminal courts, and this can be seen to have occurred as a direct result of a change in the focus of the prosecution. While in former times, court cases have been offender-based, recently the prosecutors of these cases have been more focused on the nature of the offence rather than on the psychological make-up of the person who has committed the offence. This, coupled with the fact that many states have a cut-off minor age of well below the 18-year mark has led to a situation in which many under-age persons are being wrongly tried as adults for offences. A persons age should be of immense importance when one considers where and how to try them, as age has a direct bearing on the persons ability to profit from the decision made by the court. Adult punishments are given under the assumption that the person who has committed the crime has done so with full awareness of the consequences. Even adults are sometimes allowed to plead in ways that portray them as being unaware of the consequences during the commission of the crime. Treating juveniles as adults places them at a disadvantage, as it is certain that many crimes are committed by some who have not reached a level of accountability and developmental maturity (Steinberg, 4). It cannot be considered justice when a juvenile is accorded a similar punishment to that given an adult, when that child could not have been in a similar position of understanding regarding the consequences of the actions he or she performed. Minor offenders should at least be uniformly granted consideration of t heir developmental disadvantages before being taken before a criminal court judge. The trauma that a child is likely to suffer from being confined and punished as an adult is of such a magnitude from which any young person can hardly be expected to recover fully. The immaturity of these minors intellect as well as their emotional under-development almost ensures that these inpiduals would buckle under the pressure of such punishment. Even for adults it has been shown that The adaptation to imprisonment is almost always difficult and, at times, creates habits of thinking and acting that can be dysfunctional in periods of post-prison adjustment (Haney, par. 12). When a psychologically under-developed child is exposed to conditions under which even adults have been shown to founder, this child cannot be expected to fare better than their older counterparts. It has also been expressed in several studies and by many researchers that the level of psychological taxation to which prisoners are exposed in prison has a direct and parallel effect on the extent to which these persons are harmed by the exposure. Haney goes on to write, most people agree that the more extreme, harsh, dangerous, or otherwise psychologically-taxing the nature of the confinement, the greater the number of people who will suffer and the deeper the damage that they will incur (par. 13). When children, who are at a lower developmental stage than adults, are tried and sentenced as adults, the pressure that the experience places on them is greater than that which would have been experienced by an adult. This produces the effect of situations being one of more psychological pressure. In such a situation, a child has a higher likelihood of suffering harm from punishment akin to that given to an adult, and therefore should not be treated as one by the courts. It is also the unfortunate reality that too many juvenile cases are being passed on to criminal courts without real regard for the psychological development of the inpidual in question. Many states do not regard offenders of ages 16 and 17 to be minors and therefore do not even consider them for charging and trial as juveniles (Steinberg, 2). This is true in states such as New York, where the jurisdiction for the juvenile courts do not go beyond 15 year olds (2). Therefore, a 16 year old child is automatically placed in the clutches of a system that treats him or her as an adult without regard for his or her mental or emotional condition. This, too, places the child at a disadvantage in a court system that was designed to handle adults. It forces the juvenile to face punishment as an adult when his or her emotional state is most likely not fit to handle the pressures of the adult penal system. The options that remain open to a child when being tried as an adult reduce the availability of helpful alternatives to incarceration that could otherwise be offered under the juvenile system. The process of adjudication under a criminal (adult) trial is so vastly different from that to which a child would be exposed in a juvenile trial that even the trial itself has the ability to place undue burden on the psyche of the child (Steinberg, 4). In juvenile trials, care is taken to treat the offender in a way that would preserve his/her psychological constitution. This option is unavailable in a criminal court, as little or no care is taken in a situation where a juvenile is being tried as an adult. Rather, the child (like an adult) is automatically assumed to be capable and competent to go through the rigors of trial (4). This should not be the case, as it is not to be assumed that adjudicative competence holds for juveniles, who, even in the absence of mental retardation or mental illness, may lack sufficient competence to participate in the adjudicative process (4). Furthermore, once tried as adults, children have a high likelihood of merely being turned over to prison warden. In fact, approximately 80% of all juveniles tried as adults are given prison sentences. If tried as juveniles, such children would have had other options such as house arrest, community service, or even just a shorter prison term (4). Many persons object to the view that juveniles should not be tried as adults. Many of them advocate the saying that juveniles who commit adult crimes should be subject to doing adult time (Steinberg, 2-3). These persons argue using the same psychological development platform, saying that any mind that is able to plan and execute crimes of such magnitude (as adult felonies) cannot be said to suffer from any developmental disadvantages. Such a mind, they say, proves itself to be fully developed to adult capacity and committed to violent, unethical and immoral actions (Brown, par. 2). These persons, therefore, ought to be punished in the same way that an older offender would be. These people point to such crimes as those committed at Columbine High and at many other schools around the country. These crimes have been demonstrated to be premeditated, and these children have even taken it upon themselves to invoke their own death penalties. In response to these arguments, it must be noted that the violent influences upon childrens minds have increased over the years with their exposure to violent movies and video games (Anderson & Bushman, 353). It is sometimes hard for these psychologically under-developed youth to make the right choices concerning their reactions to these influences. As a result of this consideration, the justice system should be even more understanding of the case of the juvenile offender. The treatment of juveniles as adults in the justice system represents a misapplication of the laws of the criminal justice system, as it considers persons who are developmentally inferior as being able to understand and cope with the consequences of their actions. Children are not as fully aware as adults of the seriousness of certain offences that they might have committed. This is due to the fact that during the years of transition from childhood to adulthood, much psychological development occurs along with the more obvious physical ones. Children who are subject to criminal trials and subsequent incarceration are placed at a disadvantage because they are predisposed to react adversely to these forms of punishment. Such children should remain in the juvenile justice system where more efforts are made at understanding their circumstances and where wider rehabilitation measures are available to them. Works Cited Anderson, C.A., Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: Ameta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, Vol. 12, 2001.pp. 353-359. Brown, Michael. Juvenile Offenders: Should they be Tried in Adult Courts? USA Today (Society for Advancement of Education.) January, 1998. May 1, 2007 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_n2632_v126/ai_20301223 Haney, Craig. The Psychological Impact of Incarceration: Implications for Post-Prison Adjustment. From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Re-entry on Children, Families, and Communities. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001. http://aspe.hhs.gov/HSP/prison2home02/Haney.htm Steinberg, Laurence. Should Juvenile Offenders Be Tried As Adults?A Developmental Perspective on Changing Legal Policies. Juvenile Crime: Causes and Consequences. Washington: Congress/Philadelphia: Temple University, 2000.