Monday, September 30, 2019

Considerations of Communication Style Essay

Communication style has a very big impact on the dynamics of face-to-face encounters, that is, whether a conversation proceeds smoothly or by fits and starts, whether both continually interrupt each other or are both able to talk simultaneously without interrupting and whether their style of listening match. Differences in ethnic background coupled with those of communication style probably increase chances that implicit unverbalized matters will be overlooked or misinterpreted. To be able to understand deeper and more sophisticated effects of style differences can take years. In exploring such differences of â€Å"the other†, one cannot help but come to understand the cultural factors that have shaped one’s own style. In the communication between Japanese and Non-Japanese there are intercultural communication blocks that have to be considered, which are, problems on direct and indirectness, individuality and groups view, decision making, and discussion. Components of Communication Style  According to some experts there are various things included in the components of communication style, such as: topics of discussions, favorite interaction forms -ritual, repartee, argument, and self disclosure- and involvement depth, as well as the channel people rely upon (Dean Barlund) ; behaviors –gesticulation, eye contact, speech and kinetic rhythm, and listening behavior- (Erickson) ; interruptions, pauses, laughter, inductive and deductive statements, and types of question ( E. S Johnson). However, in this discussion, there are three variables suggested as a core to explore communication style: (1) orientation to interaction, (2) code preference, and (3) interaction format. These are not to be understood as stereotype descriptions of all members of any cultural group but rather as stylistic preferences of the cultural group as a whole. Communication style orientations are anchored in cultural standards but allow for individual movement depending upon the situation and cultural constraints.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Marketing Concept and the possible limitations Essay

Marketing is defined as a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others.(Kotler.P 2002 : 5) The goals of marketing is to attract new customers by promising superior value and keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction. There are five core concepts of marketing, which includes needs, wants and demand; products, services and experience; value, satisfaction and quality; exchanges, transactions and relationships; and finally, market and marketing. After World War II, the variety of products increased and hard selling no longer could be relied upon to generate sales. Customers afford to be selective and buy products which can precisely met their changing needs with increased discretionary income. The key questions arose: What do customers want? Can we develop it while they still want it, and how can we keep our customers satisfied? In order to response to these discerning customers, firms began to adopt the marketing concept. This involves focusing on customer needs before developing the product, aligning all functions of the company to focus on those needs, and realizing a profit by successfully satisfying customer needs in long-term. In other words, in the context of marketing concept, company must first determine what the consumer wants, then produces what they wants, then sells the consumer what they wants. In marketing concept, more listening to and eventual accommodation of the target market occurs. Two-way communication is emphasized in marketing so â€Å"learning† can take place and product offerings can be improved. Business must first fulfill consumers’ needs and wants. Marketing concept â€Å"holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists in determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors† (online material #5) To illustrate the marketing concept, Peter Drucker, in 1954 said: â€Å"If we want to know what business is, we must first start with its purpose†¦Ã‚  There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer. What business thinks it produces is not of first importance – especially not to the future of the business or to its success. What the customer thinks he/she is buying, what he/she considers â€Å"value† is decisive – it determines what a business is, what it produces, and whether it will prosper.† (Online material #4) Marketing concept was considered a breakthrough in business philosophy. It’s because it represented the antithesis of the product, production, and selling concepts. The marketing concept holds that businesses should first determine the existing needs in the marketplace and then design and produce a product to satisfy this need rather than taking an existing product and endeavoring to modify demand for it by reducing price or varying promotional technique. Marketing concept plays an important part in an organization. According to the Customer Service Institute, it costs as much as five times as much to acquire a new customer than it does to service an existing one and that the customers tell twice as many people about a bad experience over a good one. According to their studies, 65% of the business of an average company comes from its presently satisfied customers. (Online material #4) There are a range of firms gain success and earns at a very high profit through the use of marketing concept. One of the examples of successful organization implementing marketing concept is JVC. JVC has been building and expanding its mobile electronics capabilities throughout the last decade, and it now markets a complete line of mobile audio equipment and accessories. In the December of 1998, JVC celebrated its success. (Online material #3) JVC launched revolutionary and market-making products like the world’s smallest CD changer, cutting-edge MD-to-CD receiver for audio aficionados, as well as JVC’s loaded  car A/V system. JVC sees customers’ needs and wants and made an attempt to fill their needs and wants, and satisfy them by expanding its product offerings and adding more varied and exciting features. They are very successful in satisfying their  customer that their customers know that with JVC, they are getting the very best sound for their dollar. JVC is so successful with its marketing concepts that they have become a global leader in the development and manufacturing of innovative audio and video hardware, as well as related software products. Another example of successful firm is the Thayer Interactive Group (TIG), an online hospitality marketing firm. TIG sees that consumer behavior has changed. People are using the internet more than ever to make research of different options prior to booking travel, and that they are approaching hotels preemptively. Therefore, TIG targets individuals who are actively looking for lodging solutions at the precise place and time that they wanted to get. Because they know that the consumers nowadays are buying based on â€Å"get more, pay little†, their program offers the industry’s first and only comprehensive suite of Web marketing services designed to administer all aspects of a hotel’s internet presence, AND bypass excessive fees charged by third-party travel sites. TIG even provides a customized â€Å"five-part program† – website development and content management; search engine marketing; guerilla marketing and online advertising; reporting and analysis; and proactive account management. The objective is to deliver the travel consumer directly to individually managed hotel Web sites which allows them to maintain control of pricing and avoid excessive third-party fees.TIG is so successful that it is already generating an average of more than $1 million in incremental revenue per participating hotel. (Online material #2) Other successful firms which have adopted the marketing concept are such as  Procter and Gamble, Wal-Mart, Marriott, Dell Computer etc. The marketing concept is founded upon the assumption that consumers are knowledgeable, intelligent, and rational, and base their product purchases upon a careful consideration of the relationship between their own needs and product attributes. However, do the consumers always know what is â€Å"needed†? In many cases, customers do not know what they want or even what is possible. For example, 30 years ago, how many consumers would have thought to ask for 24-hour Internet brokerage accounts and DVD players? Moreover, by focusing on customers’ needs, marketing concept ignore other important stakeholders. In order to implement marketing concept, a lot of research are needed to be carried out and it is very expensive to do such marketing researches. In U.S., the latest consumerism movement has caused limitations to marketing concept as well. Nowadays, consumers assert their rights to products which are safe, economic, reliable, honestly labeled and advertised, and product’s impact upon the environment. Moreover, consumerists have been very proactive in seeing that these â€Å"rights† are guaranteed, either by the firms selling the products or by the government of the U.S. In this, Peter Drucker blamed the marketers for failing their consumers and publics in using the marketing concept: We have asked ourselves where in the marketing concept consumerism fits or belong. I have come to conclusion that the only way one can really define it within the marketing concept is as the shame it. It is essentially a mark of failure of the concept†¦ (Drucker P. 1969). (Online material #5) It is often taken for granted that the marketing concept is true. The concept is usually expressed as the assertion that firms which are marketing oriented will do better than firms which are not. This assertion is being put to test empirically by Massey University by comparing the financial  results of firms exhibiting high levels of marketing orientation with those of lower levels. The result showed that there is actually no clear association between adapting in line with marketing concept and success. (Online material #1) In order to adapt and implement marketing concept, firms have to be able to meet changing customer needs and wants, as well as competitor strategies. There are a number of firms such as General Motors and Zenith, which lost substantial market share because they failed to adjust their marketing strategies to the changing market. Top management in an organization must ensue that all employees are driven by marketing concept. They must be driven by the marketing concept before they can expect employees to whole-heartedly commit to it. In addition, top management should foster an organizational culture and set organizational values that embody the concept by encouraging cross-functional communication and coordination directed toward satisfying the needs of the customers. Bibliography Armstrong G & Kotler P, 2002, Marketing An Introduction 6th ed, Prentice Hall, New Jersey Online Material #1: Marketing Bulletin,1991,2,1-7, [22/9/2003] Online Material #2: Business Editors,2002,Thayer Interactive Group Proves Marketing Concept to Hotel Industry, [20/9/2003] Online Material #3: Business Editors,1998,JVC Celebrates Success in Mobile Electronics With New Image and New Marketing Concept, [20/9/2003] Online Material #4: The Research Exchange Vol.5, [23/9/2003] Online Material #5: Robert D,Social Responsibility,Consumerism,and The Marketing Concept,1999, [24/9/2003]

Saturday, September 28, 2019

African American Outline Essay Example for Free (#2)

African American Outline Essay African (466) , American Civil War (234) company About StudyMoose Contact Careers Help Center Donate a Paper Legal Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy Complaints ? It happens to be common knowledge that throughout history African Americans have been oppressed, segregated, and disregarded as civil human beings. In the dawn of history Africans were regarded as animals and as such they would do the job of animals, however this paper will look at their sacrifices and fights to be treated as equals. United States Congress. (1866, April 9). Civil Rights Act.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Risk Reflection Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Risk Reflection - Coursework Example unication imparted the message that driving under the influence is â€Å"not the best mix.† In addition, the visuals indicated a car dipping in a wine glass full of red wine. The color itself creates the impression of blood. The statistics in the communication indicate that at least 27 people die from drunk driving yearly. The risk communication on drunk driving applies the theory of outrage factors by alerting people and reassuring them (Sandman et al., 2012). The risk communication acts as an alert trying to protect people from the perils of drunk driving. In addition, it offers reassurance that by choosing the right mix (not drinking and driving), the risk would not occur. The statistics provided amplifies the risk by indicating that it is proven that driving under the influence is risky and can lead to death. The communication has some psychological effect on the public. It continues to alert the public that they ought not to be part of the statistic. Such a statement amplifies the risk by have a psychological impact on the public on the need to keep off from drunk driving. The risk communication on drunk driving is still open to modifications to ensure that it addresses the severity of the conditions. As such, it is important the message include the penalties applicable for the offence. The communicator focuses not on the effects of drinking, but the effects of driving under the influence. The message passed across is that individuals should not drink and drive. The main issue is driving under the influence. The hazard evokes a feeling of responsibility towards one’s life. As such, it is so irresponsible for an individual to drive while drunk amid all the communication against such an act. Sandman, P., Miller, P., Johnson, B., & Weinstein, N. (2012). Agency Communication, Community Outrage, and Perception of Risk: Three Simulation Experiments. Risk Analysis, 13(6), 585-598.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 10

Response - Essay Example Although the photo initially meant a team of three people, this notion changed as I continued interacting with it. as time progressed, I realized that it is not actually what I had been thinking about it. After undergoing the discovery process, I shifted my writing from a mere discussion of the physical appearance of the objects in the photo to discussing and interpreting the cultural practices that were depicted in the photo. This experience really demonstrates how our writing process is can be greatly influenced and altered when we adopt the concept of â€Å"curious mind† in our writing process. I decided to use a drum because it is one of the musical instruments which I have been interacting with for quite some time. A drum is a musical instrument which is often used as an accompaniment by many artists because of its melodious and rhythmic sound that it produces. It is often used by different musicians of different types such as jazz, band and reggae. This drum was made by a man called John Kaman. He was one of the greatest professionals who were specialized in the making of such instruments. Personally, drum is not known to me because I have been using it for a very long time. Since I am interested in music, I have been playing drum with my colleagues. I prefer it to other instruments because it is much easier to learn how to play it. So, my experience with drums has been a good one. All through, I have been taking my time to study and observe different types of drums. According to my cultural background, I need to be unbiased, objective and open minded when interacting with new objects. This influences me to see everything so well. Meaning, before I came across this particular one, I already had an idea that there are different kinds of drums of varying sizes from which one can choose to use. Actually, drum is one of the most popular musical instruments which have been in use for years. In human history, drums have been of significance. However, for

To what extent are women and development approaches counterproductive Essay

To what extent are women and development approaches counterproductive in addressing the problems faced by women in the global south - Essay Example According to Williams (1999), the term â€Å"development† is to be taken in its broadest meaning that encompasses not only the economic sense but also every social activity undertaken by human beings to successfully employ the gifted resources of nature towards their prosperity and well being. It has truly been authenticated in the studies by several authors that women play a dominant role in the development of a family, country, and a nation as a whole. Studies conducted by Hanson and Pratt (1995) and Kobayashi (1994) suggest that women are more industrious and do more untiring jobs than men in both rural and urban areas. In fact their roles and functions are proved to be multidimensional in every walk of life ranging from home, childcare and domestic duties to social, economic and workplace responsibilities. Gringeri (1994) states that women are increasingly setting out to do out-of-home jobs with the need of supporting their economic independency. Despite that, they seem to be dependent on men for their social and economic growth everywhere around the world. As a consequence of devastating and ruining conventional norms against women in several regions of the world most specifically the less developed ones led the thoughtful world to the evolution of several panoptical ideas and approaches relevant to women and their contribution to the economic development of country termed as â€Å"women and development† approaches. Overholt et al. (1984) illustrate that these approaches greatly contributed to project women as an economic resource that could be utilised further towards the growth of economy. The first of these was the all-famous approach called â€Å"women-in-development† that was aroused and advanced in the early 1970s that served the purpose of enlightening the world regarding the role that was and that could be played by women in the economic development of countries around

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Compares and contrasts formative, summative, and confirmative Research Paper

Compares and contrasts formative, summative, and confirmative evaluation in the instructional design process - Research Paper Example Here, the clarity, impact and feasibility of the message and the instruction are determined. In the small group evaluation, the entire group is handed similar feedback based on grouped outcome of the successes or difficulties. This effectively addresses the instruction rather than the learners. In the field trial evaluation, the instructor uses the design and course materials already modified twice to present a full-scale instructional session. Challenges with formative evaluation are often found in feasibility matters. Students’ capabilities, instructional environment and medium greatly impact the outcome of the stage. The motivation, independence and maturity of individual students will determine the required time to complete the stage (Smaldino, Rusell & Heinrich, 2005). Summative evaluation is beneficial because it is possible to develop consistent, standardized sets of information on each learner. It also creates a justification for wide-scale decision making in education programs. Summative evaluation uses two phases to assess the worth or merit of a program. The inclusion of external evaluators is beneficial because it adds value to the evaluation and design of the learning process and materials. In the expert judgment phase, feasibility, content, design and congruence analysis are examined. In the field trial phase, outcome and management analysis are examined. It further looks at the impact on the students, job and organization. Essentially, the performance of the group in relation to the set objective is analyzed by the instructional designer in various ways (Gagne, Wager & Keller, 2005). Organizational resources and needs are aligned with the program through congruence analysis; goals are identified through content analysis; sufficiency of modules of instructional strategies is evaluated through design analysis; and feasibility analysis is in relation to the materials’ utility. Summative evaluation is challenged when it comes to balanci ng process and product measures and preventing backwards implication; anticipating the scope of positive and negative consequences of using results of summative assessment; attending to both non-cognitive and affective features of flourishing academic programs; and the information’s timeliness (Gagne, Wager & Keller, 2005). In confirmative evaluation, there is a follow up of the students after they are out of the program. It is beneficial because instructors get to know their competitive levels and how well they are making use of the knowledge and information they gain from their programs. This is a marriage of the other evaluations and programs in continuous improvement. Unlike the other kinds used at the designing and learning levels, confirmative evaluation comes months after implementation of the program (Morrison, Ross & Kemp, 2004). Endurance of outcomes, efficiency and return on investments are tested. However, the challenge is that the evaluators and students are forc ed to commit themselves to the full scope of evaluation. Identifying and including all the stakeholders, especially decision makers and activity planners, is also a problem. Question Two Formative assessment is an ongoing measurement in educational preparation aiming at the improvement of student learning. It provides information crucial in the monitoring of an individual’

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Life science research from your locality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Life science research from your locality - Essay Example The challenge is to extend systems biology over multiple scales to comprehend how subcellular processes control cell behavior and in turn, how interactions among cells lead to large scale organization at the tissue level. Such knowledge is key to unlocking the genetic foundations of morphological development and disease† (USU, 2011, par. 2). Personally, the technical definition encompassing the endeavor appears to be complex but deems to be extremely relevant in future medical and health applications. Through the genuine interest and commitment of scientists and scholars in various sciences, remarkable contributions have continued to emerge. The area of systems biology, when searched through the Google engine was defined as â€Å"an emergent field that aims at system-level understanding of biological systems† (Systems Biology, 2003, par. 1). Vast amounts of information could be accessed and learned from this particular field of endeavor. Works Cited Systems Biology. (200 3). Systems Biology – English. Retrieved 15 June 2011. Utah Pulse. (2011).

Monday, September 23, 2019

Analyze the article Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Analyze the article - Assignment Example Green building is an approach used by environmentalist and engineers to come up with eco-friendly structures that are sustainable. According to GSA (2010), green building techniques and materials for construction of buildings determine the level of energy consumption and other resources in the environment. To support this argument, they carried out research that showed a decline in the cost of energy consumption being below 45 percent, and water use had dropped below 39% in the US. Green building will help come up with eco-friendly industries and residential structures that will cut down pollution and emission of gases by industries, which lead to global warming. Recycling and reuse of material such as wood, fiber and plastics ensure the environment is safe. Moreover, use of solar panels in green building cuts down the demand for hydroelectric power and diesel generated power. This consequently leads to alternative use of energy sources for applications that depend solely on fossil f uel, which is a leading pollutant. Sustainability is a responsibility we cannot neglect if we want our future generation to live in a clean place. This technology in green building holds a solution to the many problems we face today on energy consumption, pollution and global warming. I concur with the fact that green building is an eco-friendly development that industries and individuals should emulate to save the

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Investment Companies Essay Example for Free

Investment Companies Essay Investors need to consider a lot of factors before investing their money in any firm. Company stability and ability to generate profits is the main attraction for any investor. Bank of America and Apple Inc are some of the most stable companies in their respective fields. Besides these are some of the highest paying industries in the world today. Bank of America Bank of America is the largest brokerage house and consumer banking franchise in the United States (Lewis, 2010, p1) during the financial crisis, bank of America posted huge losses coupled by the untimely purchase of Merrill Lynch. However in April 2010 bank of America reported a $3. 2 billion first quarter profit signifying an imminent complete turnaround for the company. Interestingly, most of the profits were generated from the trading at Merrill Lynch. The gamble to buy Merrill Lynch had paid off. With the worst of the financial crisis over, bank of America is poised to make bigger profits and reclaim its eminence that it lost to JP Chase and Goldman Sachs. Though it is unlikely to continue with the acquisitions that characterized most of its growth phase, the bank no doubt will be a big player in wealth management in the US. Long term investment in bank of America therefore will be a wise decision by an investor who is looking to capitalize to a rising stock price and dividend per share revenue. Besides, the regulations that the administration will introduce will ensure profitability and stability of the banking sector. However, given that the financial markets have not fully recovered, coupled with the impending WallStreet reform by the administration, there is likelihood that resulting volatility may eat into the company’s profits and share price. Besides, the company, like many other banks is still repaying government bailout money, a move that will affect its profits and effectively its investors. Apple Inc Dynamism describes the world of technology today. New information gadgets are introduced to the market every year. Apple is on of the companies that has emerged as a market leader challenging established giants like Microsoft and easily cutting a niche for its itself in the market. Apple prides itself with successes such as the i-Pod, the i-Tunes Store, MacBook sales, and excellent Mac OS X. Innovation to meet the ever demanding market is the main driver of apple and with its cutting edge products like the i-phone, i-pod and recently the i-pad, investing in Apple inc will be a good decision because certainly these are not the last of their products. The company has one of the highest share prices in the New York Stock exchange which stood at $140 pr share as of 2008 (Tyson, 2008, p 11). Every time people buy Apple products, it increases the company sales and profits which in return drive up the stock price (Tyson, 2008, p 11). With the continued good performance, an investor is guaranteed of good returns in the long run. While some computer and software companies saw their profits plunge during the recession, Apple’s strong position ensures continued movement of their products, a clear indicator that the company can whether big economic fluctuations and guarantees an investors returns for their money. Apple Inc. has concentrated on developing mobile gadgets but the same effort is needed in developing products like the Mac desktop. Competition from other computer and software manufacturers is stiff and an information technology company that cannot sustain the innovation trends is likely to post less sales, profits and stock price. Competitors like Microsoft and phone manufacturers like Motorola are likely to come up with gadgets that will target the entertainment industry, enterprise and high performance computing, none of which apple is well prepared for (Martellaro, 2006, p1). Expanding their niche therefore to include more products will secure the future of the company and ensure long-term stability.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Total Quality Management In The Software Industry

Total Quality Management In The Software Industry As total quality management has a great demand in todays software environment it is always better to understand not only this concept, but any concept with the help of a case study. In this case we have chosen American multinational technology and consulting firm which has its head office at Armonk, New York (IBM). In this case study we will try to strike an understanding of what is total quality management (TQM) and what are the essential steps to be followed to have a successful TQM implementation. We even discuss briefly about the management seven (M7) and quality seven (Q7) tools which are commonly used in TQM process. We also provide recommendation for the people to ensure success during (TQM) implementation. IBM is a globally renowned organization which is operating over 170 destinations across the world. Today there are about 40000 employees putting their heart and soul to bring in innovative solutions to a diverse client base to encounter some of the toughest challenges in their business. IBM is not just the worlds largest IT firm it also known to bring innovation and solution for various worldly problems. It is well known for its research and development. It partners with various governments to build a smarter planet. IBM can be called as the leading information technology and services in the planet today. It main services include: IT services Business consulting Application services Outsourcing services Services for small and medium business(SMEs) Software service Asset recovery Its main products include: Software Storage Systems Services Internet security Semiconductors(US) Point of scale(US) Printing systems from info point IBM certified pre owned equipment Its main support includes: Download Troubleshoot Documentation Install Open a technical service request Support by product Customer support Customers: There a range of customers from a verity of business sectors and a range of countries, few of them are listed below Winn-Dixie Stores (US) Tran zaps (US) Allied Irish bank Post bank Ag(Germany) Japan airlines Ps bank(Philippines) Industrial bank of korea IBM Qualifiers: End to End IT Enterprise Services: Ranging from single onsite resource deployment on a time and materials basis to fully managed services of entire system areas. Sector Expertise: Core IT sector skills, expertise and experience of working across software, Banking, Utilities, Government, Healthcare and Manufacturing, Hardware and Software.. Cost Effective Global Delivery Model: IBM provides clients with cost-effective solutions through worldwide for successful execution of project. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA): Provides services to the clients and operates progressively. Shows eight Web pages, different processes but same design Winners: Industry Standard best practices: Quality initiative at ISL is driven by ISO 9001:2002, SEI CMM Level 5, SEI CMMi Level 5, SEI PCMM Level 5 backed by IBM processes and methodologies. Technology Collaborations: In global market IMB associations created own repos and given access to all the customers. Operational Processes: IBM solutions main Operational process: The main operational process that confers to the services delivery of the company can be discept in greater detail as below: Technology Division: Generally the development of any IT applications and services delivery project usually requires the following main iterations: Project Planning: The Project planning is key for any project success. This phase prioritizes the identification of potential aspects such as scheduling and developing. Requirements Specification: The document that specifies the functional, operational, design and reference points requirements of the project is called requirement specific document, this document is generally put together by the inputs taken from the high level authority of the project. Design Development: Design is the next step that follows after the requirement specification document is created, This is the phase where the intended features, process diagram, functional hierarchy templates and ER diagram are listed, This phase is immediately followed by the development process, developers use these design elements to develop their source code. Integration Testing: Integration is the process where the various modules of the project are integrated in to once system, I E code developed by various developers is put in to one place and the software is now ready to de tested , The testing process is used to test the correctness, reliability and the completeness of the software and defects and incompleteness identified in this phase are corrected by the developers and then again tested, this cycle continues until all the bugs in the software are eliminated. Installation Acceptance: Once the software is tested completely and all the imperfections are eliminated the next phase is the installation phase, In this phase the developed software is installed for the clients to use the software, Though this is not the last phase, once the installation is done, the project is almost complete, the final phase of the software implementation process is the User acceptance test(UAT), Here a personal or a team from the users test the application or the software to confirm that all the initial requirements laid out in the SRS document are achieved and there are not bugs in the application Maintenance Support: This basically depends on the agreement that the client and the development company have agreed, it may occur that the company that has developed the software is responsible for the maintenance and support or the user may hire professionals to do this job for him, any further enhancements to the software can also be added to the finished software. The other business functions or supporting processes involved are: Customer Services: This is an ongoing process where any suggestions and complaints or requests from the client are communicated to the development team for any further changes to the application .This process also involves providing technical assistance to the customers. Marketing Sales: This is a very important aspect where any future business is generated, this team is responsible for finding new customers for the product, this team is responsible for giving demonstrations of the product in an effort to improve business. They also have the responsibility of extending the current time bound contracts to generate further business and following up with existing and new clients until the deal is sealed and the case is handed over to the technical heads. Accounting Finance: All the financial aspects starting from the pricing of the product to the employees pay scales are handled by this department. Any audit to tax payments are carefully invoiced and documented by this department. Human Resources: Human resource department need to ensure the recruitment of new talent, satisfaction and retention of the existing staff, maintaining the training and learning needs of the staff and ensuring minimum wage levels and tracking the attendance of all the employees of the organization. They form the back bone of the firm in the sense that they provide the technical manpower to satisfy the clients requirements for skills. Literature review: According to the Websters Dictionary, quality is a degree of excellence; a distinguishing attribute. That is, quality is the degree to which a product lives up to its performance, endurance, maintainability, and other attributes that a customer expects to receive from purchasing this product. In order to produce quality product, one must adopt TQM concept into ones product development process. TQM is a management technique for continuously improving the performance at every level and in every area of responsibility to ensure customer satisfaction (Schulmeyer McManus,2007). It is a way of managing an enterprise towards achieving business excellence (Dahlgaard et al., 1998). TQM can be traced to the work of Dr. Edwardss Deming and dr. Joseph M. Juran during the rebuilding of the Japanese economy in the after math of World War 2. Since American business discovered TQM in the 1980s it has been successfully implemented in a number of well known corporation in the US and XEROX, federal express and IBM (capezio. 1995). Deming (1986) suggested the use of statistical techniques for quality control, and hence mentioned the following principles on quality: The Deming Management Method: Although Walter Shewhart is considered as the founding father of statistical quality control system, W. Edwards Deming is the first one who introduced the TQM concept. Deming offered the management his fourteen points of management obligations and identified seven deadly diseases and some obstacles of TQM implementation. The fourteen points as listed below are also known as the Deming management method [Walton, 1986]. Juran (1986) emphasizing on the vitality of both technical and managerial aspects mentioned the following aspects of quality: Planning organization Control The aim of the management is to reduce the cost of mistakes, reaching a point where the total costs of quality are minimal (Juran Gryna, 1993). TQM Techniques, tools and systems Statistical Process Control ISO 9000 series Pareto Analysis Matrix Diagram Histograms Tree Decision Diagram Critical Path Analysis Fishbone or Ishakawa Diagram TABLE: Hard TQM Practices Identified in Quality Management Literature ISO 9000 series: The International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 is perhaps the most popular quality improvement system. It is an international set of documents widely known as standards written by a worldwide organization known as the ISO/Technical Committee 176 (Lamprecht, 1992). Critical path analysis (CPA). This tool is associated with managing projects. It is related to TQM because project management is critical to the implementation of quality programs within an organization (Bicheno, 1998). CPA seeks to establish, through the use of a network of arrows or nodes, a logical order of activities in terms of time and importance for the completion of a project (Bicheno). Fishbone or Ishakawa Diagram: This is one of the classic TQM tools called fishbone or Ishakawa diagram. The fishbone diagram is used to identify causes of a problem without using statistical methods (Bicheno, 1998; Goetsch Davis, 1994). According to Goetsch and Davis, the fishbone diagram serves as an excellent reminder for the things that have to be done. Crosby (1979) defined 14 steps for quality improvement, including top and intermediate management commitment, quality measurement, evaluation of quality costs, corrective action, training, a zero-defect philosophy, objective setting and employee recognition(Crosby, 1979) cited in (Tarà ­, 2005). The key components required to carry out the TQM process include top management commitment, employee involvement, problem-solving tools, continuous improvement and customer satisfaction, based on the work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby (Haag et al., 1996). The research by all these authors shows both strengths and weaknesses, for none of them offers the solutions to all the problems encountered by firms (Dale, 1999). Total Quality Management for Software: Process Improvement: The TQM philosophy described above can be applied to any development process, be it product development or software development. The Product Development Life Cycle (PDLC): This phase generally involves intelligence, design, choice, and review [Simon, 1977]. The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC): This phase involves planning, analysis, design, implementation and support [Whitten and Bently, 1998]. The application of TQM to software: Software development is a process in which the developer precisely converts the requirement specifications into software products. It is clear that the quality of software is largely determined by the quality of the process used to develop and maintain it (Sanders Curran, 1994). A number of authors have advocated the adoption of TQM for the development and maintenance of software systems (Rowe Neal, 1993).Specific frameworks do exist for the software industry like ISO 9000 and CMM which act as stepping stone towards attaining TQM. Software quality management: Major quality management processes identified by Schwalbe (2004) are: Quality planning: determining which quality standards are relevant to this specific project and deciding how these standards will be met. Quality assurance: involves evaluating overall performance regularly to ensure conformance to the set standards. Quality audits or reviews can support this function. Quality control: monitoring the activities and end results of the project to ensure compliance with the standards utilizing various available tools and techniques. TQM Concepts Total Employee Involvement Continuous Improvement Continuous Training Teamwork Empowerment Top-management Commitment and Support Democratic Management Style Customer/Citizen Satisfaction Table: Soft TQM Concepts Identified in Quality Management Literature Challenges: Many of the firms implements CMM or ISO 9000 series for improvement and reach their TQM goals. For any Organization to have a successful implementation of TQM it must ensure that the majority of its employees and those part of the value chain are willing to participate and embrace the TQM philosophy before embarking on the journey. Everyone involved in the chain need to actively play participate and engage themselves in the journey to TQM realization otherwise the whole process will be hindered. The difficulty or factors which need to be taken care off while implementing TQM: Improper Management support Less knowledge and improper market analysis. Short term involvement inability to stay on target for long Failure to get worker input Measuring profits in short term span Financial problems- not possible to invest requisite amounts to bring the change Despite the benefits TQM brings, problems have been encountered while implementation. Firms must develop a number of components in an integrated way for successful implementation (Easton Jarrell, 1998). Future of TQM: The new age TQM is being built upon the information contained in databases rather than on generic and research models. Thus, TQM will be informed and shaped by customer requirements reflected in accurate data and information systems (Aurand et al., 1996).In summary, technology would remain the key driver of TQM through the use of IT and e-business. The future of the TQM is being designed to address the needs of service based and SMEs, rather than on the conventional product based framework of TQM. Also there would be fast track TQM implementation processes as firms are trying to march ahead on the technology change front.Thus, there is likely to be a requirement for more interdisciplinary research as the future of TQM develops (Dale et al., 2001). Also, newer environmental legislation, quality standards, carbon footprint and quality-award model development related issues would be redefining the future versions of TQM.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Batteries :: essays research papers

BATTERIES There are many kinds of batteries which consist of different materials in order to produce an electric charge. Here are some of the most common batteries, what they consist of and how they work. Bichromate Cell (see picture # 1) A battery is a device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery usually consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel, you can also have a single cell battery. All cells consist of a positive electrode, and a negative electrode. An electrolyte is a liquid substance capable of conducting electricity. In this substance one of the electrodes will react producing electrons, while the other will except electrons. When the electrodes are connected to a device to be powered, called a load, an electrical current flows. Batteries where the chemicals cannot be returned to their original form once the energy has been converted (that is, batteries that have been discharged) are called primary cells or voltaic cells. Batteries in which the chemicals can be returned to its original form by passing an electric current through them in the direction opposite that of normal cell operation are called secondary cells, rechargeable cells, storage cells, or accumulators. Dry Cell Battery(see picture # 2) This is the most common battery that people use today like Energizer or Duracle batteries. The most common form of a primary cell is the Leclanche cell, invented by a French chemist Georges Leclanche in the 1860s. The electrolyte for this battery consisted of a mixture of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride made into a paste. The negative electrode is zinc, and is the outside shell of the cell, and the positive electrode is a carbon rod that runs through the center of the cell. This rod is surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese dioxide. This battery produces about 1.5 volts. Another widely used primary cell is the zinc-mercuric-oxide cell, more commonly called a mercury battery. It can be made in the shape of a small flat disk and is used in this form in hearing aids, and electric wristwatches. The negative electrode consists of zinc, the positive electrode is of mercuric oxide, and the electrolyte is a solution of potassium hydroxide. The mercury battery produces about 1.34 volts. The fuel cell is another type of primary cell. It is unique in that the chemicals aren't contained within the cell but are supplied from outside of the cell.

The Aral Sea Disaster Essay example -- Policies Environment Essays

The Aral Sea Disaster Abstract The Aral Sea and the entire Aral Sea basin area have achieved worldwide notoriety due to the environmental disaster. The example of the Aral Sea disaster has sent a signal to the entire international community demonstrating how fast and irrevocable the environmental system can be ruined if there is no long-term thinking and planning in place. This paper gives a broad overview of the policies that have resulted in dying of the forth-largest inland body of water. It concentrates on the policies and approaches of the international organizations towards the problem, describes examples of the projects and presents a conclusion on effectiveness of such policies. Introduction The Aral sea used to be the forth largest inland body of water. It had a fishing industry that employed 60,000 people and it attracted thousands of tourists. Today the Aral Sea is biologically dead and has shrunk by approximately 75-80% in volume and 50-60% in area. (See Attachment 1. The chronology of the desiccation of the Aral Sea). Fishing towns such as Muinak are now 60 kilometers inland. Approximately 75 million tons per year of toxic salt from the exposed seabed are blown over thousands of kilometers of inhabited land increasing the already high level of salinity and worsening the environmental situation. Where is the Aral Sea located? The Aral Sea is in the very heart of the Central Asia. Central Asia, an area of 1.7 millions km2 in total, lies in the middle of the Eurasian continent. It is at the crossroads of the old caravan routes that ran from Europe to Asia and the Middle East to the Far East. The whole region consists of vast deserts and semi-arid lands (See Attachment 2. Geographical ... .../aralsea/asa_dis.htm Operational Research Tuberculosis Pilot Program 3. UNOPS web site proin/5pi2001.html 4. International Aral Sea Rehabilitation Fund web site 5. Soros Foundation ¡Ã‚ ¦s Office in Tashkent web site 6. German Remote Data Center Geographical location of the Aral Sea Chronology of the desiccation of the Aral Sea Picture 1. Chronology of the dessication of the Aral Sea The series of images were derived by satellite remote sensing data and conventional data (WDB II for the mask of 1960, bathymetry for the year of 2010).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Things They Carried Essay: Strength in The Things They Carried

Strength in The Things They Carried  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Everybody has to deal with adversity at some point in their lives. The adversity that they go through varies from person to person. For First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross, he had to make it through the Vietnam War alive. In the short story, "The Things They Carried," where Cross draws his strength from is somewhat unclear. He seems strong at the beginning of the story, but then again, he also seems to be gaining strength towards the end of the story. This paper shows two different points of view. It discusses whether Jimmy Cross is a stronger person at the beginning of the story or at the end of the story. One opinion is that First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross is stronger before he burns the pictures of Martha. His strength comes from his connections to the outside world. Martha is his link to life away from the war. This is why it is important that "Martha never mentioned the war, except to say, Jimmy, take care of yourself. She wasn't involved" (O'Brien 403-404). She symbolizes all that he left behind, and all that he hopes to someday return to: innocence, comfort, love, and hope. These hopes and dreams are the things that keep him sane; they keep him more human and less of a war machine. He shows his strength by attaching himself to these things and by keeping himself partly detached from the violence surrounding him. He has the amazing ability to admit to himself that, "he was just a kid at war, in love. He was twenty-two years old. He couldn't help it" (397). By having the strength to see this reality, he fights against war's power to consume a person's whole identity. However, by deciding that, "henceforth, when he thought about Martha, it would be only to think that she belonged..., to a man who now realizes his job, and will make damn sure to get it done right. Both of the points of view are valid arguments. Both are well thought out and have good evidence to back them up. So which one is the right one? Well, that's the great thing about short stories like "The Things They Carried," they are open to interpretation. The reader is the one to decide what it means to them. The point of this paper was to present two different arguments from two different readers. These points of view were both able to answer the question, was Jimmy Cross stronger at the beginning of the story or at the end of the story, in their own way. Work Cited O'Brien, Tim. "The Things They Carried." Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. 2nd ed. Ed. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters. Boston: Bedford, 2001. Pg. 392-405.   

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Investigating the Effects of Surface Area on the Rate of Reaction Essay

Aim: To study the effects of changing the surface area on the rate of a chemical reaction Hypothesis: This hypothesis is based on the Collision Theory, where in order to react, the two particles involved must: 1. Collide with each other 2. The collision must be energetic enough to overcome the activation energy of the reaction 3. The collision must bring the reactive parts of the molecule into contact the correct way – they must collide with appropriate geometry (the reactive parts) Considering that the surface area of a particle is a factor that mainly affects the collision rate of particles, it would be safe to assume that as the surface area increases, the reaction rate increases. The graph should turn out to be something like this: 1. the reaction is the fastest at the start 2. The reaction is slowing down here 3. No more product is formed Amount of product Time Variables: Variable Factor What is manipulated Dependent Time The time it takes for the reaction to complete depends on the surface area of the compounds being used, because it determines the rate in which the reaction will occur. Independent Volume of the gas collected (H2, CO2) The amount of gas collected for each experiment will depend on the Controlled 1. Mass of Calcium Carbonate (both marble chips and powdered form) 2. Mass of Magnesium (both ribbon and powder) 3. Volume of Hydrochloric Acid 4. Apparatus Used 1. The masses of the substances utilized will remain constantly fixed during the experiment 2. 50 cm3 of HCl will be used for every trial – 550 cm3 in total 3. The apparatus used will remain the same throughout the whole experiment Chemical Reactions: Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2 1. Magnesium ribbon 2. Hydrogen Gas will be the gas collected 1. 3 Trials will take place 1. Mass of Magnesium ribbon in: 1. Trial 1: 0.064 grams 2. Trial 2: 0.063 grams 3. Trial 3: 0.065 grams CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 1. Marble Chips 2. Carbon Dioxide will be the gas collected 1. 2 Trials will take place 1. Mass of Marble Chips in: 1. Trial 1: 3.998 grams 2. Trial 2: 3.988 grams Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 1. Sodium Carbonate (Powdered) 2. Carbon Dioxide will be the gas collected 1. 2 Trials will take place 1. Mass of Sodium Carbonate 1. Trial 1: 0.504 grams 2. Trial 2: 0.505 grams Apparatus: 1. Eye-Protection – 1 pair of Safety Glasses 2. 1 pair of Scissors 3. 1 Electronic Scale 4. 1 Conical Flask (100cm3) 5. 1 Single-holed rubber bung and delivery tube to fit conical flask 6. 1 Measuring cylinder (100cm3) 7. Stopwatch Chemicals: 1. 12cm of Magnesium Ribbon 2. 550 cm3 of Hydrochloric Acid 3. Marble Chips 4. Sodium Carbonate (Powdered) Method: 1. Set up apparatus as shown 2. Fill the conical flask with 50cm3 of HCl 3. Insert the end of the syringe into the hole on top of the stopper 4. Add the magnesium ribbon 5. Seal the flask with a rubber stopper as quickly as you can, at the same time have someone else present to start the stop watch once the magnesium ribbon has been added to the hydrochloric acid 6. As the reaction takes place, note down the time it takes for the gas collected to reach a multiple of 5 (i.e. 5mL, 10mL †¦.50,55,60,65 etc) 7. Keep measuring until the reaction has stopped, or you are unable to measure anymore 8. Repeat each experiment 3 times, just to be sure the data collected is accurate 9. At step 4, replace the underlined compound with the next compound after one experiment is completed Data Recorded Magnesium Ribbon – Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2 Trial 1 (0.064  ± 0.005 grams) Time (in seconds)  ± 0.05 s Volume (in cm3)  ± 2.5 cm3 Conclusion Unfortunately I was unable to create a graph using time as the independent variable, because the lab that I had utilized did not have the equipment available to accurately to record the data if time were to be the independent variable. Another factor that played into my decision was the fact that the smallest calibration of the glass syringe I used was 5 cm3. Since the only visible measurements shown on the syringe were multiples of 5, it would only seem reasonable that I switch around the variables, making time the dependent variable, and the volume collected the independent variable, since I couldn’t exactly measure how much gas would be collected every 5 seconds; otherwise the relationship the graph would depict would be completely incorrect. As you can see on the graphs, the slightly steep slopes show when the reaction is the quickest, as it should be in the beginning. The curve shows the reaction slowing down, but unfortunately the curve continues. This is because the reaction is still taking place. I was unable to record the rest of the data because the measuring tools that were available weren’t able to record to such a high degree. In some cases though, like in the powdered sodium carbonate experiment, the reaction began so quickly that I wasn’t able to record the time in most cases, so I just stuck with those that I had managed to note down. In other cases, there were so many distractions in the lab that it was difficult to remain focused. My classmates kept removing some if the items that I was using. The idea was to see how the rate of reaction changed when the surface area of a substance was increased. Initially, my plan was to react magnesium ribbon and magnesium powder with 1 mole of Hydrochloric acid; so I could compare and contrast how the surface area of the substance affected the rate of reaction. I had planned to keep everything about the two substances the same. Its element, mass, the amount of Hydrochloric acid I was going to react with it; the only thing different would be its surface area. Unfortunately the Lab didn’t have any available. So I decided to do the same experiment to Calcium Carbonate, this time using marble chips and powdered calcium carbonate. To my dismay I found that the powdered calcium carbonate wasn’t reacting at all. So I had to change it to sodium carbonate. There is skepticism about using different elements, seeing as they have different orders of reactivity. These factors, including the concentration of the acid used, could also affect the rate of reaction. However, the same acid concentration was used for all experiments, in all trials; so we can dismiss that. However, sodium is much higher up the reactivity series than calcium, which is higher up the reactivity series than magnesium. This is the problem with this experiment; the elements positions in the reactivity series could have really altered the rate of reaction. However, the experiments still prove that when the surface area of a substance is increased, the rate of reaction increases as well. This happens because, when two substances react only the surface particles of the substances can come into direct contact with the reactant particles. Increasing a substance’s surface area, like turning big solid chunks of calcium carbonate into powder, leaves more solid particles available to react. The more particles available to react at one time, the faster the rate of the reaction. Like this: Only atoms on the surface can react If you break the substance down, more atoms are exposed and ready to react. Evaluation Considering the lack of material available, I think I was able to manage the experiment fairly enough to produce results. However, I am not pleased with the factors that may or may not have affected my results, and the circumstances in which I had to switch my variables around. Therefore I would like to state a few things I would like to alter, if ever I got the change to do this experiment again. 1. Apparatus 1. Next time, instead of using a stopwatch, I would like to use a digital device, like a laptop for example, that was somehow connected to the glass syringe, which was programmed to record the volume of the gas collected every 5 seconds. This time the graph would turn out the way it should be. 2. Instead of using a measuring cylinder, I would replace it with a burette, as it takes more accurate measurements of liquids. 1. Chemicals Used 1. I would try and used the same element next time; the only difference would be the surface area. For example, if I used magnesium, to study the effects of surface area on the rate of reaction, I would only you magnesium ribbon and magnesium powder. Studying different elements with different reactivity’s would dismiss any data already collected because an element’s position on the reactivity series may also determine the rate of reaction. Use the same element. 1. Amount of People involved in the experiment 1. If I had to do the experiment again, with the same apparatus, I think I would like to have 3 people participating in the collection of data. 1 person would be watching the syringe rise and call out to record whenever it rose, the 2nd person would time it, and the 3rd person would record it. This time, the data may be even more accurate, because no one is taking their eye off the experiment, like I was doing during my experiment just to record data. I feel that altering these aspects of the experiment would increase the level of accuracy, as to get more substantial data to calculate the order of reaction. Unfortunately with the data I have so far, I am unable to derive the concentrations of the substances I had utilized in my experiment. However, as the objective was to investigate whether or not different surface areas affected the rate of the reaction, I think that I have produced enough data to support my theory.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Literature and Culture Essay

I. Literature – General Introduction â€Å"Literature is my Utopia. Here I am not disenfranchised. No barrier of the senses shuts me out from the sweet, gracious discourses of my book friends. They talk to me without embarrassment or awkwardness† (Helen Keller) Keller could not have been more correct in this insight about literature, and scarcely would anyone who has had a lifetime with the written word raise any issue about its faultlessness. Man with his complex, often unfathomable and unpredictable thoughts, feelings and actions, and many times restrained by societal norms from openly exposing what he has inside him, considers literature as a socially acceptable vehicle for unrestrained self-expression. Literature is life. It is a mirror of man’s desires and aspirations, his ambitions and accomplishments, his fears and anxiety, his joyful and fulfilling moments. Through it, he records his experiences of triumphs and downfalls, laughter and anguish, determination and indecision—from things phenomenal to matters mundane. It is only through literature that the human mind is able to successfully transcend all material barriers to reveal its essence which constitutes the â€Å"isness† of man’s being. Literature, then, is the totality of humanity. The famous French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre succinctly said it all in the following line: â€Å"If literature is not everything, it’s not worth a single hour of someone’s trouble† (http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/keyword/literature. html). What is Literature? ? So broad and deep is the extent and scope of literature that putting up a definition for it is almost like limiting its parameters. However, for academic purposes, it will be relevant to explain what the concept encompasses. ? On a general perspective, anything that is written is classified as literature. ? On a stricter sense, however, and across cultures and ages, literature is associated with a poem, or a fiction article, or a stage play, a book or a classroom lesson. ? Literature, as the body of written works of a language, period or culture, and produced by scholars and researchers, reminds us of stories, epics, sacred scriptures and classical works of the ancient and modern times. Literary works are portrayals of the thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society. Classical literary works serve as a food for thought, imagination and creativity. ? A literary article should interest, entertain, stimulate, broaden the imagination and experience, or ennoble the reader (Roberts 2). It springs as an idea from the need of its creator to get across a thought or feeling. The writer starts from an experience or set of experiences, real or imagined, which he thinks he needs to share with his public. Working on his creative tablet, he recreates the facts to reflect true-to-life happenings, or invents incidents, places, and characters and puts thoughts into the latter’s minds and words in their mouths. Or he may decide to compress an otherwise long factual or imagined story in a few metered or rhythmical lines. The result is an original text that satisfies its creator’s purpose– a literary article, an imaginative literature. ? Kirszner & Mandell explain that the word â€Å"literature† immediately stirs in the mind the concept of â€Å"imaginative literature† (1). Imaginative Literature is one which temporarily transports the reader to a different world, away from the physical and emotional realities of his existence, where he could be free to view the world with his own eyes and heart. Imaginative literature is not confined to print. A substantial number of orally transmitted imaginative literatures have set the traditions in their respective genres and have remained among the most respectable pieces in the literatures of the world. Why should we value literature? Literature that is imaginative can have far-reaching effects on the reader (Kirzner & Mandell 2-3).? The characters, scenes, images, powerful language, and carefully and masterfully developed plot can delight the reader and offer him an ephemeral escape from the stiffness, boredom, even cruelty of the world around him. ? It can transport the reader out of the limits of his time and space, and get him into seeing another possible phase of life. Meaningful insights can be drawn from wholesome literary texts. ? It can bring him to a level where he is able to see his life more objectively, up close and personal. This is because literature reveals truths about humanity. More than a mere description of people and what they do, literature brings the reader to a slice of virtual life in which he (the reader) consciously experiences his humanity. This is an added value of literature. ? It is an avenue for him to view and understand his own experiences and those of others. Reflecting can make him more sensitive to the needs of others and his own. Literature, then, can serve as a value guide as well as a lead to an analysis of values and meanings about the realities in life. ? Imaginative literature is founded on facts—history, pure science, psychology, sociology, anthropology, mathematics, and other branches of knowledge. The information load it carries can be another added value to the reader. Similarly, literature that is imaginative has marked values for the writer (Krizner & Mandell 3). ? It is a creative avenue for self-expression. A writer can unravel the ill-effects of cultural patterns and norms, and can suggest ways to remedy a stinking system through the characters of his short story, novel, or play, or the persona in poetry. Also, he reveals his individuality and uniqueness as a writer in the way he manipulates the elements of his genre—character, setting, language, format, and style. ? It is an expression of common cultural values. A writer has his own mind about a problem or issue, but that â€Å"thought† is molded by the collective sentiment, aspiration, philosophy, value, even fears of the community or cultural group he belongs to. Literature provides opportunities for the transport of these ethnic or cultural thoughts, feelings, and biases to peoples across cultural borders. It is in this way that literature can stand as the conscience and consciousness of the community which created it. Literary Genres and Culture Traditions in literature include classifying works into literary types or genres. Genre classification can have several advantages (web. nchu. edu. tw/~chtung/1986. doc. 2-6). ? It can bring about an order or a system in the handling of literary texts and, in effect, facilitates choice of materials akin to one’s interests, which can result in greater understanding and appreciation. For example, a reader who has an ear for musicality and rhythm will pick up a poetic text more likely than he would a book of fiction. ? It has resulted in the writing of standards for each genre. With the aid of these writing standards, literary creators are able to craft their works more systematically. Thoughtfully going over the standards for a drama will aptly arm a novice writer to focus on what the audience will look for in a play. Conversely, a critic who is familiar with genre standards will know exactly what to look for in a literary work.? The existence of genre classification is one avenue that can lead to the meeting of minds between the reader and the writer. When the brain has identified beforehand what it is looking for in a text (schemata-text matching through knowledge of specific genre), comprehension of the text will be less stressful, less threatening and more enjoyable. Culture-based Literary Traditions 1. Genre Classifications. The presence of traditional and universally recognized genres does not dictate the uniformity of genre classifications and the standards for each genre. Not all genre classifications are present in all places, and not all places observe the same standards for each classification. Every culture has its own genre, owing to the variations in the experiences and aspirations of the people in each culture. For example ? The sonnet which is common in western traditions is not well known in China or among the Arab nations ( Kirszner & Mandell 2). ?The kabuki play of Japan has as yet no counterpart in western countries (Kirszner & Mandell 2). ? We still have to see a counterpart of the Filipino pasyon in other literary traditions. 2. Narrative organization conventions. The standards on the presentation of events in a plot can vary from culture to culture specifically with orally transmitted literature (Kirszner & Mandell 2). For example: ? Some native American and African stories dating to the early stage of cultural development are arranged spatially, not chronologically as is the tradition in almost all cultures. All incidents that took place in one setting are narrated, then the narration moves to focus on all the incidents in another setting, and so on until all the events are completely retold. Even character development is not given as much focus in some traditional African and Native American stories as it is in present-day fiction (Kirszner & Mandell 3). 3. Character development. Present-day fiction puts much emphasis on the identity and the development of character. This is not so in some traditional African and Native American stories. Kirszner & Mandell state that in some of these narratives, characters are sometimes not named and can even switch roles towards the end of the story (3). Genre Classifications and Time Earlier literary works were grouped more generally than those in the present. Contemporary literature is lumped into four big groups—prose fiction, poetry, nonfiction prose, and drama (Roberts 3) while earlier traditions recognized three groups– fiction, non-fiction and poetry. The drama in its traditional form used verse, which explains why it was categorized as poetry. Although not markedly divergent from the present literary groupings, the â€Å"old† genre classification reflects those which societies then considered to be what mattered most. The Genres of Literature Critics could not seem to agree on one best way literary writings should be grouped; however, most authorities name four categories for classifying literature (Roberts 3). 1. Narrative fiction or prose fiction. This is the literary type which first comes to mind when the word fiction is mentioned. Narration, or retelling past events, is what makes fiction what it is. ? Narrative fiction gives an account of a series of events, factual or imagined but mostly imagined.? One character, the protagonist, or a few characters is/are at the center of these  events, causing them to happen and or causing him to be transformed. ? He is confronted with a problem, the solution of which is his primary concern, and the action he takes towards its resolution is the reason for his transformation. He may or may not overcome the problem. ? Some events in fictional narratives are drawn from historical incidents but fictionalized through change of names, places, and time, and a slight tweak in the plot. ? Through narrative fiction, the author is able to express his thoughts about a problem or issue, and/or is able to entertain. Classifications of Narrative Fiction a. Myth. This prose fiction, which punctuates the literary beginnings of practically every cultural group, is a story centered on how the gods related to humans—how certain places, beings, and places came to be, how the gods’ biases made some people’s lives fulfilling and rendered others’ lives miserable, how conflicts among the mortals affected the gods or vice versa. Myths can also be about struggles among cultural heroes, each one representing the time-established beliefs of a particular cultural group. b. Parable. This is a short narrative about some ordinary experiences of a group of people and is meant to connect to the teaching of a certain moral, or the hammering home of a philosophical, social, religious, or political teaching. The Jewish tradition best exemplifies the use of parables. c. Romance. This refers to lengthy Spanish and French stories of the 16th and 17th centuries, especially about the adventures and ordeals of the royalty and the members of their court. It can also refer to modern formulaic stories describing the growth of an impulsive, profound and powerful love relationship. d. Short story. Owing to its comparative brevity, this is the most popular type of narrative fiction. The plot may revolve around one or two main characters facing a difficulty. There are high as well as low points in their lives but, almost always, each one’s life will not go back to exactly the same point where it began. Because of the little space dictated by the shortened form of the text, interactions and relationships resulting in changes in character, no matter how subtle, are described briefly. e. Novel. This is a short story in extended form. Length being its advantage over the short story, the novel permits the full and sometimes exhaustive development of the interactions that lead to changes in some characters’ disposition, thoughts, feelings, or aspirations (Roberts 5). 2. Poetry. A poem is a literary form that â€Å"expresses a monologue or a conversation grounded on the most deeply felt experiences of human beings† (Kirszner & Mandell 522). ? It is acclaimed as the oldest and the most popular among the literary forms. ? It is the most variable in length, running from a few syllables, as in the Japanese haiku, to hundreds of stanzas, as in the epic.? The language is compressed in a few lines or verses arranged in conformity with the principles of form, rhythm, and sometimes meter and rhyme. ? It has a rich imagery and suggestive forms of expression, making it the most puzzling and, therefore, the most open to multiple interpretations. These qualities make poetry â€Å"unique† (Roberts 5). ? Among earlier cultures, for example, Greek and Roman, poetry served as a vehicle for the expression of the spiritual and the philosophical. With the passing of time, poetry has gained an added value—that of expressing the most profound ideas and the deepest emotions of humanity. Across the cultures of the present, poetry remains to inspire, to delight, and to serve as a vehicle for the concerns of the heart (Kirszner & Mandell 522). Classifications of Poetry f. Narrative poetry. This is a story in verse, of which there are two familiar forms: i. Epic. Apparently the more familiar of the two, an epic is a narrative account in verse of the accomplishments of a heroic figure, a folk hero who exhibits extraordinary physical powers and superhuman dispositions, of gods, and other supernatural entities. The account covers a wide expanse of time and place, and reflects the cultural characteristics of the people who wrote it. Although some epics are credited to particular authors, others are ascribed to their countries or cultures of origin. This is because epics of old were handed down orally, in plain verse or in song, and, as a result, grew and developed as they passed from one generation to the next, eventually mirroring the evolution of the people’s traditions and norms. Of worldwide renown are The Iliad of Homer, The Aeneid of Virgil, Beowulf of the Anglo-Saxons, and Mahabharata of the Hindus. ii. Ballad. Like the epic, the ballad traces its origin to oral tradition. Originally intended to be sung, this narrative poem carries one outstanding characteristic–its use of repetition of words and phrases, including a refrain. g. Lyric Poetry. This poem does not attempt to tell a story. Possessing a very personal and subjective nature, it conveys the speaker’s feelings, biases and aspirations, state of mind, and perceptions in a melodious mood. Lyric poetry sub-types include the following (Kirzsner & Mandell 525-526): iii. Ode. This is a long lyric poem which is, generally, on a serious subject, such as an important concept (for example, freedom), person, or any other entity in nature (for example, the sun) and with a formal poetic diction and meditative mood. The poem centers on the speaker’s observations about the subject and usually winds up with an effort towards shedding light on an emotional problem. Owing to its Greek origin, it is often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses. iv. Elegy. This lyric sub-type is meant to mourn the passing of a specific person. As such, it is characterized by a melancholy and plaintive mood and an ending that offers consolation. It may also reflect what the author considers to be mysterious, uncertain, or strange. v. Pastoral. In contrast to the elegy, the pastoral has a light, happy, even romantic mood as it celebrates the simplicity and idyll of country life. vi. Occasional poem. This poem is meant for a particular event, for example, a wedding, the installation of a prominent church leader, the putting up of a landmark, or a president’s inaugural. vii. Poems on everyday activities. Poems are sometimes written to express the writer’s feelings or describe his experiences about day-to-day events, for example, going about the daily chores, herding the animals back to their corral, or riding the trolley. viii. Aubade. This poetic form is specifically written to celebrate or lament the coming of a new day, specifically the arrival of morning. Dawn is often welcomed with joy and hope, but it can also bring despair to a persona who sees it as a signal to leave his lover. ix. Meditation. An ordinary object can be used as a vehicle to consider important, more serious issues. A poem that is focused on this is called meditation. Kriszner and Mandell cite Edmund Waller’s Go, Lovely Rose as an example (526) in which the speaker tells the rose meant to be delivered to his lady love his message for the lady. Far more important than his words of adoration is his advice for the lady not to waste the charm and time bestowed upon her since time flies and beauty fades in no time. x. Dramatic monologue. In this poem, the speaker addresses one or more listeners who is/are absent. In the process, the speaker unravels the dramatic aspect of the situation and reveals his psychological and emotional side of the issue at hand, which is usually less interesting than how he (the speaker) treats it. Some authors use the term dramatic lyric. xi. Some authors classify the epigram, a verse in two to four lines with characteristic wit and sarcasm, under lyric poetry Cited as a classic example is Alexander Pope’s On the Collar of a Dog (voices. yahoo. com) which runs in two lines. In most cases, however, an epigram is not a stand-alone piece but forms part of a longer poetic composition. xii. Other cultures have their own types of lyric poems, e. g. , ghazal in Urdu, and rondeau in French. h. Satirical Poetry. As far back as the days of the Roman empire, poetry was already used as a powerful vehicle for political purposes. This tradition continues to these days. Many who are disgruntled with any system or structure choose to amplify their bitterness and discontent artistically through carefully crafted satirical poems. Poetry can have several forms. i. Sonnet. It comes in 14 lines arranged in three quatrains and a couplet [Shakespearean or English] or an octave and a sestet [Petrarchan or Italian]. The iambic pentameter is generally used in sonnets. ii. Cinquian. It has five short lines with the following pattern: line 1 – one word or 2 syllables; line 2 – 2 words or 4 syllables; 3 words or 6 syllables; 4 words or 8 syllables; 1 word or 2 syllables. iii. Haiku. This is a verse of Japanese origin consisting of three unrhymed lines of 5 – 7 – 5 morae (quantity of time equivalent to a short syllable). A traditional haiku carries a word pertaining to the seasons and a cutting word, called kireji, used at the end of one of the three lines. Incidentally, there is no English equivalent of the cutting word concept (www. poemofquotes. com/haiku). iv. Tanka. Like the haiku, tanka is a Japanese verse but consists of five lines. The first and third lines carry five syllables each while the rest of the lines have seven syllables each. v. Concrete poem. This poem uses typography—the appearance of the printed text—to enhance its message. Thus, visual elements such as punctuation marks, symbols, and arrangement of words on the printed page, or the shape of the poem, are elemental in driving home the writer’s message. A poem about the magical sounds of a bell is shaped like a flower, while one that has nature as subject may take the shape of a tree or a bird. Visual poems, pattern poems, and size poems are examples of concrete poems (www. poemsofquotes. com/articles/concrete-poetry. php). vi. Blank verse. This type of verse uses unrhymed iambic pentameter. vii. Free verse. Unlike the blank verse, this type of verse may be rhymed or unrhymed but does not observe a fixed meter. 3. Drama. This literary genre is meant to be presented on stage. Actors portray the events in the story as though these were happening in the  present. Like narrative fiction, there is a problem around which all action revolves. At the center maybe a single character or a small number of characters who carry the burden of resolving the conflict and on whose actions and thoughts the attention of the audience is largely focused. The protagonist may overcome the problem or may be overcome by it. Unlike in a narrative fiction, the audience in a drama are able to actually witness the fictional events as they happen, making the experience direct and closer to life than in narrative fiction. i. Tragedy. Often associated with the bizarre and the disastrous, and in keeping with Greek tradition, this type of drama is focused on â€Å"treating serious subjects and involving persons of significance† (Kirszner & Mandell 917, citing Aristotle’s Poetics). ? At the center of the drama is a character, the protagonist, who is noble, respected, perfect from almost all angles, except for one flaw which is not obvious at the start but which will later manifest to a very crucial point that will suffice to cause his downfall. ? A very important lesson is conveyed here—man’s condition in life is one of  nobility. ? The purpose of the play is to bring the audience to an experience of pity for the central character as he wrestles with the trials in his life and with experiences of fear of going through the same situation. ? The audience is expected to leave the theater with the resolution to not follow the tragic path which the central character of the play took. j. Comedy. This type of drama sits on the other end of the spectrum. It is designed to â€Å"treat themes and characters with humor and typically has a happy ending† (Kirszner & Mandell 917). ? The main character is an ordinary individual whose life is open to the public, and whom the public knows to be carrying a mask of his true self all along. ? The comedy is meant to take away that mask from the protagonist and to reveal to the audience his simplicity and foolishness, his lack of understanding of things, his being â€Å"selfish, hypocritical, vain, weak, irrational, and capability for self-delusion† (Kirszner & Mandell 917). ? Ironically, it is the comedy that brings entertainment and laughter to the audience who, unknowingly, is the subject of criticism of the action in the  play. k. Farce. This is a humorous play. But unlike the comedy, the plot does not depend on the development of a character but on a situation that is exploited ingeniously. The term can speak for itself. 4. Nonfiction Prose. Any literary form not falling under any of the categories just mentioned is classified as nonfiction prose. This group consists of a wide array of fact-based and fact-oriented written materials presenting judgments and opinions and which are created mainly as sources of information. News reports, feature articles, essays, editorials, textbooks, and biographical and historical works fall under this category. Recently, there has been a marked increase in the interest for biographical and historical works, a good number of which have become bestsellers. Many schools have shifted to biographical and historical novels for required student readings. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. The statements that follow are supported by the foregoing discussions except one. Find that sentence. l. Literature is a potent vehicle to convey a personal longing. m. The most extreme of human experiences are the only ones considered as worthy literary materials. n. Man’s freedom of self-expression can be best exemplified by the almost limitless breadth of possibilities in literature. o. Reading a literary text is experiencing the writer’s unspoken regret or praise. 2. Find the sentence which is not supported by the foregoing discussions. a. Defining literature is not always necessary. b. Imaginative literature can be a rich source of lessons about living life. c. A well written literary text can cause a change in a person’s disposition. d. Written literature has always been the better tradition. 3. Which of the following statements best paraphrases the opening quote? a. Literature is the source of Helen Keller’s highest point of contentment. b. Keller and her friends read literature a lot and find much meaning from it. c. Being blind and deaf, Keller finds literature reading as the best pastime. d. Keller’s friends love to hear her share with them what she has read and what she thinks about them. 4. Imaginative literature differs from other literary forms in the following ways except one. e.Imaginative literature builds on a writer’s personal experience and shares it factually with the reader. f. Mundane and extraordinary human experiences are vividly recreated and accented with some of the writer’s imaginative thoughts. g. Imaginative literature is everything that transports the reader to a different world, stimulates his creative mind, and appeals to his sense of values. h. Man’s most profound thoughts and feelings are expressed in symbols and images. 5. Which three (3) statements are not supported by the discussions on the value of literature? i. Every literary text has its own place in the arena of values.j. Longer texts, such as the novel and the drama, have a more profound reader-impact than shorter ones, such as proverbs and haikus. k. One of the added values of literature is that it requires interpretation and analysis of meaning. l. Literature has to be historical for it to be prized. m. A song expressing a prisoner’s longing for immediate freedom is an ethnicity-inspired literary piece. 6. C. S. Lewis is quoted to have said: â€Å"Literature enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the desert that our lives have already become. † This quote supports the idea that: n. Basically, literature is based on world knowledge. o. Literature brings entertainment to its audience. p. Available in every literary text are several insights about meaningful living. q. Literature enables the reader to grasp the meaning of his experiences and those of the people around him. 7. Which of the following statements is not true about poetry? r. It dates back to the earliest years of man’s literary experience. s. It is strictly metered, rhymed, and rhythmical. t. It can capture the most profound and the most ordinary human experience in a few words. u. The poet’s message is cloaked in rich symbols and other forms of evocative expressions. 8. Although sometimes classified as poetry, romance is proprietarily a type of narrative fiction _____: v. owing to its length. w. because it is basically intended to give an account of past incidents in story format. x. since it is situated at a definite past time and space. y. because it is about adventure. 9. The following is an English translation of a Bilaan poem attributed to pre-colonial times. [Bilaan is a tribal group of southern Mindanao, which is the second biggest island in the Philippines and is situated in the southernmost part of the archipelago. The early people were renowned hunters and food gatherers (blog. travelpod. com/travel-blog-entries/aliawan/1/1262268183/tpod. html)]. The language of the people is also called Bilaan. ) Read the poem carefully to be able to answer the question below. LAMGE What can we do? Oh, what can we do? This is our work, this we should do. Oh my, how, oh how is this to go on? Continue, then come back when you reach the top. â€Å"’Tis not there! ‘Tis not here! † they said. We’ll try till we can make it. It’s not here, according to them, but don’t relax Don’t be surprised. They’re still far. Let’s hurry! (Lumbera & Lumbera 11) What sub-type of poetry is Lamge? a. a poem on everyday activities. b. occasional poem. c. pastoral d. meditation 10. Which of the following work values were prized by the early Bilaans as evidenced by the poem LAMGE? z. creativity and leisure {. individual recognition and prestige |. collaboration and achievement }. autonomy and compensation 11. Study the following excerpts then identify that which is not taken from imaginative literature. ~. â€Å"EDSA’ (the name of the highway in Metro Manila that runs north to south from Caloocan to Baclaran) has become the popular designation of the revolt which began as a military mutiny on February 21 [1986] and developed into a popular uprising in Manila that culminated in the flight of the dictator and his family to Hawaii, U. S. A. on February 24, 1986. The revolt established the presidency of Corazon Aquino which was marked by the â€Å"restoration† of pre-Martial Law society† (Lumbera & Lumbera 364). . â€Å"It was raining the morning of the execution. I remember how brackish and crimson was the sky. God has sliced open the sun, spilling its innards, carving out its heart. That sun had never seemed the same to me ever since. The cold air scraped the insides of my lungs and chilled my nape. It was the first dawn I had awakened to. The first time to witness the pained violent birthing of light† (Lumbera & Lumbera 377). . â€Å"And so we talk/ our words trying to capture/pain caroming/like the balls of ivory/ Our voices rise/and fall/ as we sit in a circle/ racing our other lives/ the beginnings/ of love/ rich and red/ as the felt on the board† (Lumbera & Lumbera 422).   Ã¢â‚¬Å"Matumal ang pasada nang buong umagang iyon at naipasiya kong igarahe muna sa bahay and minamanehong taksi kesa magsayang ng gasolina. Pababa na ako nang sa paglingon ko’y nasulyapan ko ang clutch bag na iyon sa may paanan ng likurang-upuan. Kinabahan ako at patawarin ako ng mga anak kong gusto kong lumaking matitino, lumabo sabi nga ang tingin ko sa tama’t mali, sa masama’t mabuti. Paano kung limpak-limpak na pera ang laman ng clutch bag? Kung bara-barang ginto o alahas kaya? Isosoli ko pa ba? Managot kaya ako kung saka-sakali? † (Lumbera & Lumbera 422). (The trips were far between the whole morning and I decided to  temporarily drive home the cab rather than [keep going through the streets and] waste gas. I was about to get down when in a glance I noticed that clutch bag at the foot of the backseat. I began to feel restless and my children whom I wanted to grow responsible [may they] forgive me, my sense of right and wrong, good and bad, blurred. What if the clutch bag contained stacks of money? What if it had bars of gold, or jewelry? Will I return it? Will I answer for my action just in case? ) 12. Choose the excerpt that is taken from imaginative literature. . â€Å"Home making is really border making: it is about deciding who is in as well as who is out. I began this project on Filipino Americans in San Diego at the border—the U. S. -Mexico border. Since the mid-1970s, the militarization of the U. S. -Mexico border region has intensified. From San Diego to the Rio Grande Valley, armed U. S. federal agents patrol key border points to block ‘illegal’ crossers—to keep ‘them’ from invading ‘our’ homes. Since 1994, ‘Operation Gatekeeper,’ a high-profile blockade-style operation, has turned the San Diego-Tijuana border region into a war zone, pushing immigrants to attempt more treacherous crossings in the forbidding mountains and deserts east of San Diego† (Espiritu 205-206). â€Å"In the annals of human adversity, there is etched a cancer, of a breed so malignant that the least contact exacerbates it and stirs in it the sharpest of pains. And thus, many times amidst modern cultures I have wanted to evoke you, sometimes for memories of you to keep me company, other times, to compare you with other nations—many times your beloved image appears to me afflicted with a social cancer of similar malignancy† (Rizal, Dedication of Noli Me Tangere).

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Leadership of Pres Kennedy and Johnson

Kennedy wasn†t in office for very long, his actions in and out of the whitehouse are legendary. When President Kennedy took the oath of office in 1960 he wasted no time in cleaning up America. Several bills were enacted in President Kennedy†s tenor. A lot of the major ones had to do with crime control. A lot of President Kennedy†s bills were targeted at organized crime. Bill S1653 was singed into action on September 13 1961. This was an interstate travel bill. The bill made it a crime to travel or use any facilities in interstate commerce with intent to conduct violent crimes to further illegal gambling, liquor, narcotics, or prostitution business. This bill had a major effect shutting down a lot of â€Å"speakeasy†s† which took care of gambling, and betting. Customs got a lot tighter which had a great impact on the running of liquor to foreign countries such as Canada and Mexico. A lot of drug pushers were arrested and many Bordellos† were also shut down. The senate passed Bill S1653 on July 28 and House on Aug 21. This was one of many anti-crime Bills that President Kennedy would enact throughout his term. A lot of his primary goals were oriented towards organized crime. Another one of President Kennedy†s crime Bills to be passed in 1961 having to do with crime was Bill S1656. This Bill made it a crime for anyone in the betting business to knowingly use a wire communication facility to transmit in interstate commerce any bets or wager information. Also it made it a crime to be caught with any betting paraphernalia such as parley sheets or wager stubs. This authorized a lot of wire-tapping and surveillance. Bill S1656 was passed by the Senate on July 28 and by the house on August 21 and was signed September 13. One other bill passed in 1961 by President Kennedy was the Fugitive felon act. This act made it a federal crime to cross boarders to avoid being prosecuted or remanded into custody after committing a violent crime or avoid giving testimony on a crime. This act was strongly enforced by local law enforcement agencies. The Federal firearms act of 1961 was a major bill passed for President Kennedy in 1961. This act prohibited the shipment of firearms in interstate and foreign lands to people under inditment for certain crimes. Not all of President Kennedy†s bills were directed towards the Mob and other such crime syndicates. President Kennedy also lobbied for the 1961 juvenile delinquency and youth offences control act. This act provided programs of federal assistance to state and local agencies to control delinquencies. It also authorized sections of health, education, and welfare to make grants for projects to improve methods of control, treatment and prevention of delinquency and to establish personal training programs. This bill was mainly focused at gang members, drug addicts, and first time offenders under the age of eighteen. In 1962 President Kennedy continued his onslaught on organized crime. One of his first acts was to enact an anti-crime bill that put a stop to interstate travel of gambling machines. Bill S1658 broadened on the 1951 ban on interstate travel of gambling machines to include shipments to points in the U.S. through foreign commerce and any machines including roulette wheels. Roulette wheels were included simply for the fact that they are a machine that is wagered upon were the course of action can result in the transfer of currency and or property. This bill was ironically called the Gambling Devices act of 1962. The Senate passed this bill by voice vote on July 27, 1961 and by the House June 29. This Bill was then signed into law October 18, 1962. Another bill that was going through congress was the eighth in a package of anti-crime bills proposed in 1962. Only two of the bills actually got anywhere. They were bills S1658 (the gambling machine bill) and bill S1655. This bill allowed the granting of court immunity to certain witnesses in labor-management racketeering cases. The Senate passed this in 1961. After president Kennedy was assassinated on November twenty-second, 1963, Vice-president Johnson was sworn into office at 2:38 PM later that day. President Johnson picked up where his predecessor left off. This led to the creation of a presidential committee on youth crime and juvenile delinquency with major stress on major cities such as New York, New Haven, San Francisco, and Cleveland. Other provisions to this act that differed from the first are setting up detoxification centers for drug abusers. One of his major acts was appealing to congress for drug laws and punishment. In 1964 a bill went through congress stating that there wasn†t â€Å"adequate means for detecting illegal diversions (of psychotoxic drugs) from legitimate channels. The reason for this bill was to make the non-legit licensed drug pushing a federal crime. One of the problems was that for the bill to be effective the regulation of such drugs had to cover intrastate as well as interstate commerce. The reason congress had to do this was because the drugs themselves do not come with labels stating their origins, and because of the manor that the drugs are held and or consumed a placing of their origin could be very taxing. For example because of foreign commerce certain drugs from for example Columbia might be treated more or less over say Peru. On August fifteenth 1964 congress passed bill number S 2628 by voice vote. There was no objection to the bill. The narcotics bill passed through congress and was eventually signed by President Johnson. On a related note the previous bill was the only directly involved narcotics bill in 1964. Around the same time that the narcotics bill was going through congress, the Senate Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee filed a report on August 31. The report basically stated that the Narcotics Control Act of 1956 wasn†t working. The committee stated that â€Å"it failed in its initial determent purpose.† To help solve the problem the subcommittee recommended passage of several legislative measures. One of the bills was S 2628 this bill stated that instead of sentencing addicts, the way to handle them was to set up hospitals and detoxification centers. This was the new way to handle drug abusers. In 1965 President Johnson began to take a look at an increase in Mafia action that has been on a steady incline since 1961. In 1965 several bills were formed to combat organized crime. Senator†s John L McClellen (DArk) and Senator Frank J Lausche (D Ohio) submitted four bills in a package on June 24. The bills were as follows: 2187: Made it illegal to be involved in Mafia or any â€Å"secret society† that made their living by committing criminal activity. 2188: Made it a crime to obstruct federal procedures or investigations by attempting to bribe officials involved or witnesses. 2189: Legalized certain wire-tapping by federal agents for violation of federal law. 2190: Permitted witness in federal grand jury investigation to be compelled to testify and provide that they could be granted immunity from prosecution based on their compelled testimony. In early August of 1965, President Johnson urged for the enactment of the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 to supplement federal law training to local law enforcement officers as the FBI had conducted in the past. The purpose of the act was to provide training programs and demonstration projects in police work to update and improve the standards of local law enforcement personnel. The house passed on August 2, bill HR 8207 which authorized an appropriation of ten million dollars to implement the act in fiscal 1966. In 1967 the Omnibus District of Columbia Crime bill was passed which provided for warrentless arrests for minor misdemeanors and issuance of summons. In addition President Johnson also established a Federal Judiciary center to improve the operation of the federal judiciary and for protecting witnesses and informants from such enemy†s like the mob or other syndicated crime organizations. The Safe Streets and Crime Control act was passed to provide money for research and education for many ordinary street crimes. This set up the pathway for local organizations such as neighborhood watch. An Addition to that act was to focus again on juvenile crime. Thus the Juvenile Bill of 1967 was adopted. This bill also provided more money to develop and improve existing facilities regarding juvenile crimes. The money that was given went to: A. Appoint the Commission on crime and delinquency to do research on crime in the U.S. B. Appoint the Commission on law enforcement and administration of justice. A major contribution to the growing violence in America was guns. President Kennedy didn†t touch much on gun control. Neither did President Johnson until 1968. In 1968 President Johnson signed the gun control act. This act stated that a better control of interstate traffic in firearms was needed. This bill enabled support to federal, state and local law enforcement officials in their fight against violence and crime. President Johnson wasn†t only interested in fighting injustices on earth. Also in 1968 he signed an agreement between the U.S. and USSR banning nuclear weapons in outerspace. In conclusion President Kennedy and President Johnson both did a lot for crime control. A lot of the bills and act in which they personally oversaw are still in use today. Both had a lot to say and put their words into action. A lot of attention may have been swayed during the Johnson administration due to Vietnam. But President Johnson didn†t allow this to focus here at home as well. A lot has been done to prevent crime. A lot still needs to be done. With a little faith our presidents will continue to sign bills that will keep our streets safe and take care of crime in America. It isn†t very easy to get a bill to become a law. Most proposed bills never leave the floor before they are thrown out. Only the bills that have strong effects and are truly needed become laws in America.